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1371 The pseudo-dipteral temple was constructed with eight columns in front and rear
and with fifteen on the sides, including those at the angles, see fig. 1447. The walls of
the cell are opposite to the four middle columns of the front and of the rear. Hence,
from the walls to the front of the lower part of the columns, there will be an interval
its columns so arranged that those at the angles are to correspond with the antæ of the external walls: the two central ones opposite the walls between the antæ and the middle
of the temple are to be so disposeil, that between the antæ and the above columns, and in that direction, others may be placed.
Their thickness below is to be one-seventh of their height, their height one-third of the width of the temple, and their thickness at top is to be one-fourth less than their thickness at bottom. Their bases are to be half a diameter in height. The plinths, which are to be circular, are half the height of the base, with a torus and fillet on them as high as the plinth. The height of the capital is to be half a diameter, and the width of the abacus equal to the lower diameter of the column. The height of the capital must be divided into three parts, whereof one is assigned to the plinth or abacus, another to the echinus, the third to the hypotrachelium, with its apophyge.
Over the columns coupled beams are laid of such height as the magnitude of the work may require. Their width must be equal to that of the hypotrachelium at the top of the column, and they are to be so coupled together with dovetailed dowels as to leave a space of two inches between them. Above the beams and walls the mutuli project one-fourth of the height
of the columns. In front of these menFig. 1454.
bers are fixed, and over them, the tympanum of the
pediment, either of masonry or timber. Of circular temples there are two species; the monopteral (fig. 1455) having columns ' without a cell, and the peripteral with a cell (fig. 1456). In this last the clear diameter of the cell within the walls is to be equal to the height of the columns above the
Fig. 1456. pedestal. Of this species was the celebrated temple at Tivoli, in the admiration of which a dissentient from its allowed beauty has hitherto been recorded. With it situation has doultless much to do.
Having thus related the description of Roman temples as known to Vitruvius, we girə an elevation of two Grecian temples as restored, to contrast with the above descriptions of similar works. Fig. 1457 is the temple of Pallas, or of Jupiter Panhellenius at Ægina, in the gulf of Athens. The ruins were explored in 1811 by Messrs. Cockerell, Foster, Haller and Lynck, with very remarkable success, in elucidation of every desired architectural detail, and of the then unascertained style of the Æginetan school of
sculpture, constantly mentioned by ancient writers as of the first merit and of universal estimation. The temple is hexastyle peripteral, but has twelve columns only in the flanks. The top step measures 44 feet 10 inches by 93 feet 1 inch; the height to the point of the pediment is 35 feet. The pediments and
acroteria were adorned with not less ihan thirty-four Parian statues representing the two Trojan wars, in which the Æacidæ were engaged more especially. These sculptures are now at Berlin, but casts of them, placed in models of the pediments, are erected in the British Museum. Fig. 1430 shows the centre group of one of the pediments to a larger scale. The date of this work is supposed to be not later than the sixth century B.C.
Fig. 1458 is a representation of the west front of the temple of Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon, at Athens. It is an example of the rare arrangement of the octastyle peripteral, the sides have seventeen columns. The top stop measures 101-336 English feet by 228·15 feet; the height to the apex of the pediment is 59-27 feet. A capital of one of the columns and many of the sculptures of the pediments, metopæ, and frieze around the cella, formed a series of the gems of Lord Elgin's collection, and are low in the British Museum. Ictinus and Callicrates were the architects, and Phidias
the director of the sculpture, intrusted by Pericles with its erection. It is supposed
that ten or fifteen years were so occupied, and that the temple was completed B.c. 438. TEMPLET. A mould used in masonry and brickwork for the purpose of cutting or setting
out the work. When particular accuracy is required, two templets should be used, ono for moulding the end of the work, and its reverse for trying the face. When many stones or bricks are required to be wrought with the same mould, the templets ought to be made of some metal.
The term is also used to denote a short piece of timber sometimes laid under a girder, particularly in brick buildings. TRNIA. The fillet or band at the top of the frieze in the Doric order. TENANT. The occupier of a house and holding a lease or agreement from the landlord or
other person. " Tenants in common” are such as hold by several and distinct titles, but by unity of possession. "Joint tenants" are such as have equal rights in lands or
tenements by virtue of one title. TENON. (Fr. Tenir.) A projecting rectangular prism formed on the end of a piece of
timber to be inserted into a mortise of the same form. TENON Saw. One with a brass or steel back for cutting tenons. TENSION. The stretching or degree of stretching to which a piece of timber or other
material is strained by drawing it in the direction of its length. TEOCALLA. The house of God or temple of ancient Mexico. It is a pyramid formed in
terraces with flat tops, and always surmounted by a chamber or cell, which is the temple itself, where the ceremonies were exhibited to the people. One at Cholulu is 1440 feet square, and 177 feet high, having four stories. The teocalla of Yucatan rises at an angle of about 45 degrees to the level of the platform on which the temple stood; an unbroken flight of steps leads from the base to the summit. That at Palenque is the
finest yet discovered. TEPIDARIUM. (Lat.) A name given to one of the apartments of a Roman bath. TERAM. The scroll at the end of a step. TERCENTO, The style of art prerailing in Italy during what is usually called the
fourteenth century. Term or TERMINAL. A sort of trunk, pillar, or pedestal, often in the form of the frustum
of an inverted obelisk with the bust of a man, woman, or satyr on the top. See
VAGINA. TERMINUS. The popular word for the station at each end of a railway. TERRA-COTTA. (It.) Baked earth. In the time of Pausanias there were in many temples
statues of the deities made of this material. Bassi-rilievi of terra-cotta were frequently employed to ornament the friezes of temples. In modern times it has also been much used for architectural decoration, being modelled, or cast, or made up of pipe or potter's clay with fine sand and flint, and afterwards fired to a stony hardness, hardly to be scratched with a steel point. The manufacture is greatly used in a variety of ways for ornamental and useful purposes. “Many early productions, even of less durability than those now made, are found in ruins of stone, in which the latter material has been steadily disintegrating for thousands of years, but leaving the terra cotta as perfect, in many cases, as if recently produced. In faithfully made and vitrified terra.cotta we have the great and lasting triumph of man over natural productions ; for timber will rot; stone, even granite, will disintegrate; iron will oxidise; all other metals will succumb to the action of fire, and to other destroying influences of the elements. Properly made and thoroughly burned terra-cotta will pass through centuries, and be the last to yield to those influences to which all natural productions must give way. In all architectural employments it is practically time-proof and indestructjble. Very many important transactions recorded in this material have been found in
a good state of preservation in the ruins of Babylon.” (Davis, in Builder, xlvii. 479.) TERRACE. An area raised before a building above the level of the ground to serve as a
walk. The word is sometimes, but improperly, used to denote a balcony or gallery. TESSELATED PAVEMENT. A rich pavement of mosaic work made of small squares of
marbles, bricks, tiles, or pebbles, and called tesselæ or tessere. TESSERA. (Gr.) A cube or die. This name was applied to a composition used some
years ago for covering flat roofs, but now abandoned. TESTUDO. (Lat.) A name given by the ancients to a light surbased vault with which
they ceiled the grand halls in baths and mansions. Generally, any arched roof. TETRADORON. (Gr) A species of brick four palms in length. See BRICK. TETRAGON. (Gr.) A figure which has four sides and as many angles. TETRASPASTOS. (Gr. Tetpa, four, and Etagow, to draw.) A machine working with four
pulleys. TETRASTYLE. (Gr. Terpa, and Etulos, a column.) See CoLONNADE. Thatch. The corering of straw or reeds used on the roofs of cottages, barns, and such
buildings; and sometimes the cottage orné is so finished for a picturesque effect.