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ve give a plan (fig. 159), was commenced in the year 984, and was completed in 1047,

on the type of, if not copied from, the cathedral of St. Mark, at Venice. A section is given in fig. 160, exhibiting the use of the pointed arches in construction only. The choir at Loches was erected between the years 1140 and 1180, and is in the late and elegant Norman style universal in that country, just anterior to the introduction of the true pointed style, which was timidly effected in the north of France about the year 1150, being mixed with round arches in all the great cathedrals and churches erected between 1150 and 1200, at which date the style may be said to have been perfected in all its essential peculiarities.

307a. “ In England it was in every respect above twenty-five years later The first really authentic example of its use is in Canterbury Cathedral after the fire in 1175, and was apparently in. troduced by William of Sens; nearly half a century passed before it can be said to have entirely superseded the Norman arch. In Germany, the introduction was somewhat later, and we know of no authentic specimen of pure Gothic anterior to the commencement

of the 13th century, and even then Fig. 159. PLAN OF ST. FROXD, PERIGUEUX.

nearly half a century elapsed before it entirely superseded the round arch style. During the whole of the first half of that century, we find round arches mixed up with the pointed ones which were then coming into fashion."

307b. These views were combated by Mr. E. Sharpe, as noticed in the Builder, p. 317, especially as to the first named works being considered as arches at all; and a question

arose at the Institute of
British Architects, as to
the age of the French
buildings named; Trans-
actions, 1860–61, p.
211, &c., and 115. Mr.
Street, in bis Brick
Architecture in Italy,
states, (p. 258) chat-
“ The Italians ignored,
as much as possible, the
clear exhibition of the
pointed arch, and, even
when they did use it,
not unfrequently intro.

ducid it in such a way Fig. 160 ST. FROND, PÉRIGUEUX, TRANSVERSE SECTION.

as to show their contempt for it as a feature of construction ; employing it often only for ornament, and never hesitating to construct it in so faulty a manner, that it required to be held together with iron rods from the very first day of its erection. This fault they found it absolutely necessary to commit, because they scarcely ever brought themselves to allow theuse of the buttress.”

(6) MEDIEVAL ARTIFICERS. 308. In considering the question of the origin of pointed architecture, those who have hitherto been supposed to have devised the pointed arch itself must not be neglected: and to these persons we are indebted for the gigantic masses of exquisitely decorated composition, to be seen in the structures which they designed and erected. These men are imagined to have belonged to a corporation or guild having authority over all countries, or to a guild in each country, having authority only in its own nation. This so-called confraternity has been known as the Freemasons. In the following account of them we shall much abridge the two papers read before the Royal Institute of British Architects, and given in

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the Transartions of that society, 1860 and 1861. Before doing so, however, it will bu necessary to introduce a few preliminary remarks on the state of architecture previous ti the period when the so-called body of Freemasons is said to have arisen.

309. The pontificate, towards the end of the 10th century, of a Benedictine monk, named Gerbert, afterwards known under the name of Sylvester II., and whose life, if Platina (Lives of the Popes) may be relied on, was not of the most virtuous character, seems to have induced an extraordinary change in the arts. Gerbert was a native of Auvergne, and under Arabian masters at Cordova and Granada, applied himself to, and became a great proficient in, mathematical learning. He afterwards appears to have settled at Rheims and to have there planted a school which threw out many ramifications. The scholars of the period were confined to the clergy, and the sciences, having no tendency to injure tha Church, were zealously cultivated by its members.

309a. In the 17th century, architecture, considered as an art, was little more than a bar. barous imitation of that of ancient Rome, and in it, all that appears tasteful was, perhaps, more attributable to the symma try flowing from an acquaintance with geometry, than the result of fine feeling in those that exercised it. It was adapted to religious monuments, with great modifications; but the materials and resources at hand, no less than the taste of those engaged in it, had considerable influence on the developments it was doomed to undergo. The sculptures of the period were borrowed largely from the ancients, and among them are often to be found centaurs and other fabulous animals of antiquity.

309b. In the 19th century, the Elements of Euclid became a text book, and though this country was then behind the Continent, as respected the art of architecture, there is good reason for believing it was by no means so in regard to proficiency in mathematies, inasmuch as the Benedictine monk, Adelard of Bath, is known to have been highly distinguished for his acquirements in them.

310. The crusades had made the people of Europe acquainted with the East, and in the 12th century the result of the knowledge thus acquired was manifest in France, England, and Germany ; it could, however, scarcely be expected that the art would emerge otherwise than slowly under the hands of the churchmen, wbo were the principal practitioners, as it is generally supposed; but there were undoubtedly professional men, as they may be called, in the 12th century, who undertook the management of work, as we shall notice presently; and it is well authenticated (De Beka, De Episcopis Ultraject.) that, in 1099, a certain Bishop of Utrecht was killed by the father of a young freemason, from whom the prelate had extracted the mystery (arcanum magisterium) of laying the foundations of a church. The period at which arose the celebrated Confraternité des ponts, founded by St. Benezet, is known to have been towards the latter end of the 12th or the beginning of the I sth century. The association of Freemasons had, however, its types at a period extremely remote. Among the Romans, and still earlier, among even the Gre+ks, existed corporations (if they may be so called) of artificers and others; such were Numa's Collegia Fabrorum and Col. legia Artificum, who made regulations for their own governance. These collegia were much in favour with the later Roman emperors, for in the third and fourth centuries we find that architects, painters, and sculptors, and many of the useful artificers, were free from taxation. The downfall, however, of the eastern and western empires, involved them in one common ruin, though it did not act'ally extinguish them.

311. The idea of the early establishment of a superintending body of co-workers such as the Freemasons are said to have been, appears to have originated in the assumption, that as the monuments of the 13th century bear so great a resemblance to each other, no other probable cause could be assigned for their similarity, than the influence of some powerful association of operators. Allowance, however, must, in many cases, be made for the materials at hand in different localities, which, it is hardly necessary to observe, influence style in architecture most perceptibly. Another point too often forgotten in this inquiry, is the gradual progression of the art, and the long transitional periods between each phase of pointed architecture. Some writers on the Freemasons have imagined that the concealment of their modes of arranging arch stones was the chief object of their association, and there can be no doul't that the whole science of construction was studied and taught in the lodges. Others have thought that they inclined to Manicheism, of which the sects were numberluss : but we think they had enough to engage their attention, without discussing whether all things were effected by the combination or repulsion of the good and the bad; or that men had a double soul, good and evil; or that their bodies were formed, the upper half by God, and the lower half by the devil. Some have considered that though the l'reemasons, as a body, were not hostile to the Church, they were inveterate enemies of the clergy and more particularly of the monks. This may be abundantly seen in the ridicule and grotesque lampoons bestowed on them in the sculptures of the 13th century. As an instance of the extreme length to which the ridicule of the priests was then carried, there is at Strasburg the representation of an ass saying muss and served by other animals as acolytes: and this work must have been done under the eyes of the monks themselves !



$12. The remarks by the present editor, On the Superintendents of Enlish Buildings in the Middle Ages contains the first classified account of the official situations of persons engaged, with some general idea of their duties. This list includes the terms:-1, Architect; o, Ingeniator ; 3, Supervisor ; 4, Surveyor ; 5, Overseer ; 6, Master of the Works; 7, Keeper of the Works; 8, Keeper of the Fabric; 9, Director ; 10, Clerk of the Works; 11, Devizor ; 12, Master mason; and 13. Freemason and mason, or inferior work.

It will be impossible here to give more than a brief outline. To commence with the freemasons :-In 1077, Robertus, cementarius, was employed at St. Albans, and for his skill and labour, in which he is stated to have excelled all the masons of his tiine, he liad granted to him and his heirs, certain lands and a house in the town. In 1113, Arnold, a lay brother of Croyland Abbey, is designated of the art of masonry a most scientific master.” William of Sens, employed at Canterbury, was a layman and was called “magister"; the history of his work has been preserved to us in the well written account by the monk Gervase, who details the burning and rebuilding of that cathedral. A number of chosen cementarii were assembled at St. Albans in 1200, of whom the chief, magister Hugo de Goldclif, proved to be a " deceitful but clever workman.” Very many other names of masons are noticed, but these cannot all be here given. In 1217, a writer uses the syno. nyms maszun for cementarius ; artificer is a word also used in the same century; marmorarius, or marbler ; and latomus or lathomus, stone-cutter, also occur. In 1360, a mason de fraunche Dere ou de grosse pere is named in the Statutes; while it is not until 1996 that the terms - lathomos vocatos ffremaceons,” and “ lathomos vocatos ligiers,” are used to designate the masons who were called free( stone)masons, and the masons called layers or setters. In the fabric rolls of Exeter cathedral, the term sime, tarius is used before, and the term fremason after, the above-named period of 1396. Thus the derivation of the term freemason, from a freestone-worker, appears more probable than the many fanciful origins of it so often quoted. What becomes then of the "travelling bodies of freemasons” who are said to have erected all the great buildings of Europe ? Did they ever exist? The earliest mention of them appears to have been promulgated by Aubrey, some time before 1686, who cited Sir William Dug. lale as having told him “ many years since, that about Henry III's time (1216-72), the Pope gave a bull or patents to a company of Italian frıemasons to travel up

and down over all Europe to build churches. From them are derived the fraternity of Adopted Masons." No evidence has been adduced in support of this statement; searches have been nade in the Vatican library without success. Wren's Parentalia gives an account of these personages to the same purport, though somewhat enlarged, (par. 401), and this has been quoted as an authority. From a careful comparison of circumstances, Dugdale's inormation to Aubrey most probably referred to the " Letters of Indulgence” of Pope Nichuas III., in 1278, and to others by his successors as late as the 14th century, granted to the odge of masons working at Strasburg cathedral, as also noticed on page 131 herein.

313. Concerning the Fratres Pontis, or the Confraternité des ponts, already referred to, par. 310), much has been written during the last one hundred years asserting that this brotherhood had been founded for the express purpose of travelling far and wide to build pridges. Even as regards France, only a notice is found of such a troop having been ormed by St. Benezet, for building the bridge at Avignon, and that of St. Esprit, wer the Rhone, during the 12th and 14th centuries, (1178 1185 and 1265-1509). In England no such companies are found recorded; but wherever a bridge was built, a chapel ippears to have been founded, to which a priest was attached to pray for the soul of the bunder, to receive passage money, and sometimes to pray with the passenger for the safe ermination of his journey. Two instances only, of an early date, have been put forward jf so called fraternities of masons; the first is that Godfrey de Lucy, bishop of Winchester, ormed in 1202, a confraternity for repairing his church during the five years ensuing Such,” says Milner, “was probably the origin of the Society of Freemasons.” The econd, as asserted by Anderson, ( Constitutions of the Free and Accepted Muens, 1738), but jot since authenticated, is that the register of William Molart or Molash, prior of Canerbury cathedral, records that a respectable lodge of freemasons was held in that city in 429, under the patronage of Henry Chichele, the archbishop, at which were present Chornas Stapylton, master, the warden, fifteen fellowerafts, and three entered apprentices, it does not then appear to have been known that each cathedral establishment possessed a ermanent staff of officers, with certain workpeople, and “took on additional bands whenver the edifice was to receive additions, or to be rebuilt. The monarch also had an othee or carrying out the repairs and rebuildings at the palaces and royal bouses. A quilil of nasons was undoubtedly in existence in London, in 1375, 49th Edward III , and in 1376 wo companies of masons and of freemasons were in existence. The Virsons' Company of London was incorporated in 1411, and Stow says " they were formerly called treemasons.' l'he masons, during the 17th and 18th centuries, often became designers or architects, is witness Nicholas Stone, George Dance the elder, Sir Robert Taylor, and others.

314. At this date of 1375, some writers have placed the origin of that wonderful society, caused, as they urge, by the masons combining and agreeing on certain signs and tokens by

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