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dome. On the exterior are two orders of Corinthian columns engaged in the wall, which support senricircular arches. In the upper order the columns are more numerous, inas. much as each arch below bears two columns above it. Over every two arches of the upper order is a sharp pediment, separated by a pinnacle from the adjoining ones; and above the pediments a horizontal cornice encircles the building. Above the second story a division in the compartments occurs, which embraces three of the lower arches; the separation being effected by piers triangular on the plan, crowned by pinnacles. Between these piers, semicircular headed small windows are introduced, over each of which is a small circular window, and thereover sharp pediments. Above these the convex surface of the domo springs up, and is divided by twelve ribs, truncated below the vertex, and ornamented with erockets. Between these ribs are a species of dormer windows, one between every two ribs, ornamented with columns, and surmounted each by three small pointed pediments. The total height is about 179 ft. The cupola is covered with lead and tiles; the rest of the edifice is marble.
293. The extraordinary campanile, or bell tower, near the cathedral at Pisa, was built about 1174. It is celebrated from the circumstance of its overhanging upwards of thirteen feet, a peculiarity observable in many other Italian towers, but in none to so great an extent as in this. There can be no doubt whatever that the defect has arisen from bad foundation and that the failure exhibited itself long before the building was completed ; because, on one side, at a certain height, the columns are higher than on the other; thus showing an en deavour on the part of the builders to bring back the upper part of the tower to as vertical a direction as was practicable, and recover the situation of the centre of gravity. The tower is cylindrical, 50 ft. in diameter, and 180 ft. high. It consists of eight stories of columns, in each of which they bear semicircular arches, forming open galleries round the story. The roof is flat, and the upper story contains some bells. The last of the group of buildings in Pisa is the Campo Santo, which, from its style and date (1278), is only mentioned here out of its place in order to leave this interesting spot without necessity for further recurrence to it. It is the public burying place of the city, and, whether from the remains on its walls of the earliest examples of Giotto, and Cimabue, the beauty of its proportions, or the sculpture that remains about, is unparalleled in interest to the artist. It is a quadrangle, 403 ft. in length, 117 ft. in width, and is surrounded by a corridor 32 ft. in breadth. This corridor is roofed, forming a sort of cloister with semicircular-headed windows, which were at first simple apertures extending down to the pavement, but they have been subsequently divided into smaller apertures by columns, which, from the springing of the arches, branch out into tracery of elegant design. The interior part of the quadrangle is open to the sky. Some of the arches above mentioned were completed as late as the year 1464.
The style of the transition to pointed art will be noticed in the section on POINTED ARCHITECTURE at the end of Book I.
(a) ORIGIN OF THE POINTED ARCH. 294. About the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century, a most singular and important change took place in the architecture of Europe. The fat southern roof, says Möller, was superseded by the high pitched northern covering of the ecclesiastical edifices, and its introduction brought with it the use of the pointed arch, which was subsilluted for the semicircular one: a necessary consequence, for the roof and vaults being thus raised, the character of the whole could not be preserved without changing the entire arrangement of the combination of forms. But we have great doubts on Möller's hypothesis ; it will, indeed, be hereafter seen we have a different belies on the origin of the pointed arch. Before we at all enter upon the edifices of the period, we think it will be better to put the reader in possession of the different hypotheses in which various writers have indulged, relative to the introduction or invention of the pointed arch; and though we attach very little importance to the discovery, if it could now be clearly established, we are, as our work would be incomplete without the notice, compelled to submit them for the reader's consideration. 295. 1. Some have derived this style from the holy groves of the early Celts.
But we can see no ground for this hypothesis, for it was only in the 14th and 15th centuries that ribs between the groins (which have been compared to the small branches of trees) were introduced ; hence it is rather difficult to trace the similarity which its supporters contend for.
296. 2. That the style originated from huts made with twigs and branches of trees intertwined.
An hypothesis fancifully conceived and exhibited to the world by Sir James Hall, in soine very interesting plates attached to his work. Möller properly observes upon this theory of twigs, that it is only in the buildings of the 15th and 16th centuries that the supposed imitation of twigs appears.
MILNER'S ORIGIN OF THB POINTED ARCH.
297. 9. From the framed construction of timber buildings. — This is an hypothesis which it would be loss of time to examine, inasmuch as all the forms and details undoubtedly arise from the vault and arch; and a close examination of the buildings of the 19th century proves that the ancient ecclesiastical style involves the scientific construction of stone saulting, all timber construction being limited to the framing of the roof.
298. 4. From the imitation of the aspiring lines of the pyramids of Egypt. — This hypothesis is the fancy of Murphy, the ingenious and useful editor of a work on the convent of Batalha, in Portugal, and also of some of the finest edifices of the Moors in Spain. The following is the reasoning of the author : — The pyramids of the Egyptians are tombs; the dead are buried in churches, and on their towers pyramidal forms are placed ; consequently, the pyramids of the towers indicate that there are graves in the churches; and as the pyramidal form constitutes the essence of the pointed arch style, and the pyramids of the towers are imitations of the Egyptian pyramids, the pointed arch is derived from the latter. The reader, we are sure, will not require from us any examination of the series of syllogisms here enumerated.
299. 5. From the intersection of semicircular arches which occurs in late instances of the Romanesque style. — This was the hypothesis of the late Dr. Milner, a Catholic bishop of great learning and most amiable bearing, and a person so intimately acquainted with the subject on which he wrote, that we regret his reasons for the conjecture are not satisfactory to us, albeit the combination (fig. 153.) whereof he speaks is, in the Romanesque style, of
frequent occurrence. The venerable prelate seems to have lost sight of a principle familiar to every artist — that in all art the details of a style are subordinate to and dependent on the masses, and that the converse never occurs; how, then, could the leading features of a style so universal hare had their origin in an accidental and unessential decoration, like that of the theory in question?
None of the above hypotheses are satisfactory; and Möller well observes, that the solution of the question, whether the pointed style belongs to one nation exclusively, is attended with great difficulties. And it may be said that the problem for solution is not, who invented the pointed arch, but, in what way its prevalence in the 13th century is to be accounted for.
300. We are not of opinion that it is of much importance that this verata quæstio should be settled ; and that it will now satisfactorily be done, we consider very much out of the limits of probability. But we suppose that the reader will be inclined to ask for our own bias on the subject; and, as we are bound to answer such a question, the reply is, that we are of the faith of the Rev. Mr. Whittington, to whose work we have before referred, that the pointed arch was of Eastern extraction, and that it was imported by the first crusaders into the West. “ All eastern buildings," says that ingenious writer, “ as far back as they go (and we cannot tell how far), have pointed arches, and are in the same style; is it not fair to suppose that some of these are older than the 12th century, or that the same style existed before that time? Is it at all probable that the dark ages of the West should have given a mode of architecture to the East ?” Lord Aberdeen, whose taste and learning in matters of this nature well qualified him for the posthumous introduction to the public of the author we are using, observes, in his preface to Whittington's work, that, “ if we could discover in any one country a gradual alteration of this style (the Romanesque), beginning with the form of the arch, and progressively extending to the whole of the ornaments and general design ;
after which, if we could trace the new fashion slowly making its way, and by degrees adopted by the other nations of Europe ; the supposition of Mr. Walpole (that it arose from what was conceived to be an improvement in the corrupt specimens of Roman taste then exhibited, and was afterwards gradually carried to perfection) would be greatly confirmed. Nothing, however, of this is the case. We find the Gothic (pointed] style, notwithstanding the richness and variety it afterwards assumed, appearing at once with all its distinctive marks and features, not among one people, but, very nearly at the same period of time, received and practised throughout Christendom. How will it be possible to account for this general and contemporary adoption of the style, but by a supposition that the taste and knowledge of all on this subject were drawn from a common source ? and where can we look for this source but to the East, which, during the crusades, attracted a portion of the population, and, in a great degree, occupied the attention, of the different states of Europe ?” This was an opinion of Sir Christopher Wren, at least greatly so, his leaning being rather to deducing the origin of the style from the Moors in Spain. It is the fashion of modern half-educated critics to place little reliance on such authorities as Wren. We have, from ex. perience, learned to venerate them. The noble author whom we have been quoting proceeds by stating that “ the result receives confirmation from the circumstance of there being no specimen of Gothic (pointed] architecture erected in the West before the period in ques. tion.” Exception, however, is to be made for the rare occurrence of a very few examples. Latimer on the subject of the Goodwin Sands and Tenterden steeple. One of the point of Moller's reasoning we do not think at all fortunate ; it is that on the forms of thi Moresque arches. Now, it must immediately occur to the reader that one of the forms (a
at the side), and that a common one, is to be found in their arches, that of contrary flexure ; a form in the architecture of this country in the time of the Tudors univer:
sally adopted, though, it must be allowed, much flattened in the application. Another point seems to bave been altogether overlooked by Moller, namely, the practice a diapering the walls, whereof an instance occurs in Westminster Abbey ; and one which has 1 very strong affinity to the practice of the Moors, who left no space unornamented. The higher-pitched gables of the northern roofs, we admit, fostered the discovery, by the introduction of forms from necessity, which were admirably calculated to carry out to their es. treme limits the principles of which the Crusaders had acquired some notion for practice on their return to their respective countries. As to the objection that the Arabs had no original architecture, it is admitted. They must, however, have had that of the tent, whose form inverted would give all that is sought. These observations we do not throw out as partisans ; the hypothesis adopted by us is sanctioned, in addition to the learned author upon whom we bave drawn so much, by Warburton, and T. Warton, and Sir Christopher Wren; and Though none of these had the opportunity of basing their opinions upon the labours of the recent travellers whom we have been able to use, we do not think, upon this mooted question, either of them would be reduced to the necessity of retracting what he has respectively written.
303. In glancing over the many writers on the subject, it is amusing to see the difference of opinion that exists. For instance, twenty are of opinion that it originated in Germany; fourteen, that it was of Eastern or Saracenic origin; six, that it arose from the bint suggested by the intersection of the Norman arches; four, that it was the invention of the Goths and Lombards; and three, that its origin was in Italy. Sprung, however, from whatever place, it appears to have given in every sense an independence to the art not before belonging to it, and to have introduced principles of far greater freedom, in respect of the ratio of points of support to the whole mass, than were previously exhibited or probably known. Those who may feel desirous of consulting these views in detail, will find notices of sixty-six theories in the fifth volume of Britton's Architectural Antiquities. Only two of thiese theories attempt to account for the introduction of the pointed arch on the ground of usefulness; one was put forward by Dr. Whewell as regarded vaulting; the other by Dr. Young and Mr. Weir, who urged that the use of the pointed arch was originally due to ai discovery of its diminishing lateral pressure. Mr. Sharpe has advocated the same viev. These theories will also be found in Ramée, Manuel de l'Histoire Générale de l'Architecture, 1843, ii., 238, 248.
303a. Michelet ( Histoire de France) observes, “Or, lors de l'apparition de l'ogive en Oecident vers 1200, Innocent III est le dernier rayon de cette puissance universelle, le pouvoir de l'Eglise Catholique s'affaiblit. La tentative des ordres des mendiants, des pères prêcheurs est infructueuse. Le pouvoir des prêtres tombe dans la main des laïques. La puissance du droit canonique, de ce robuste auxiliaire de l'Eglise, s'efface en France devant ces lois sages faites par le pieux Roi St. Louis, et ses établissements immortels servent de code nouveau à ses sujets. En Angleterre le Roi Jean-sans-terie donne, en 1215, la grande Charte. En Allemagne, au commencement du treizième siècle, paraît le Sachsenspiegel. Au milieu du quatorzième, où le règne de l'ogive est à son apogée, l'Empereur Charles IV donne la Bulle d'or. Au treizième siècle se terminent les Croisades qui mirent le Pape au dessus des pouvoirs temporels. Ces guerres saintes avaient fait prévaloir l'autorité de l'Evêque de Rome. Mais au treizième siècle l'activité des peuples chrétiens avait prit une autre direction, et ils finirent par secouer toute espèce de domination." It is impossible, in naming the pontificate of Innocent III., to refrain from noticing that it was an epoch, in which such men appeared on the scene as St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Dominic, St. Francis of Assisi, John Gerson, author of the “ Imitation of Jesus Christ,” a composition that has been oftener printed than any other work; and in literature and the arts, about the same period, are to be found the names of Dante, Robert de Lusarches, Etienne de Bonneveil, Pierre de Montereau, Lapo or Jacopo, besides a host of others.
304. The foregoing remarks comprise a resumé of the early views on this subject, but we must not omit to mention those held by the learned writer, Mr. James Fergusson, who observes that Dr. Whewell, in his Nutés on German Churches, has very distinctly stated the question of such inquiries :—“ These only tend to show how the form itself, as an arch.' may have been suggested, not how the use of it must have become universal ” (see also 999). Fergusson then (Builder Journal, 1849, p. 290, 303, 317), treating the history of the pointed arch succinctly by certain facts, brings forward four sets of pointed arches.' I., the ancient buildings extending down to the period of the Roman empire; II., the decline of the Roman influence, extending to the present day, in the countries of the East to which these two classes of arches are confined ; 111., the arch appearing in the south of France alone, in the age of Charlemagne, extending to the 11th century, when it was superseded by the