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exterior of its base semicircular headed windows are introduced, each of which is subdivided into two apertures of similar forms. Between every two piers hemicylindrical recesses are formed, each covered by a semidome, whose vertex is 48 ft. from the pavement, and each of them contains two windows subdivided into three spaces by two columns of the Corinthian order, supporting semicircular-headed arches. Between the piers and the external walls are two corridors, which surround the whole building, in two stories, one above the other, each covered by hemicylindrical vaulting. The upper corridor above the vault is covered with a sloping or leanto roof. We liave before noticed the introduction of vases in the spandrels at the Circus of Caracalla ; and we cannot help being struck with the similarity of construction in the instance above cited. It fully bears out the observation of Möller (Denkmahler der Deutschen Baukunst), “ that, though beauty of proportion seems to have been unappreciated in these ages, and architecture was confined within a servile imitation of the earlier forms, the art of compounding cement, the proper selection of building materials, and an intimate acquaintance with the principles of solid construction with which the ancients were so conversant, were fully understood.”

283. The æra of Charleinagne, which opened after the middle of the eighth century and continued into the early part of the ninth, gave rise to many grand edifices dedicated to Christianity. This extraordinary man, rising to extensive dominion, did much towards restoring the arts and civilisation. “ Meanwhile, in the south-east,” says an intelligent anonymous writer, “ the decrepid Grecian empire, itself maintaining but a sickly existence, had nevertheless continued so far to stretch a protecting wing over them (the arts] that they never had there equally approached extinction. It seems probable that Charlemagne drew thence the architect and artisans who were capable of designing and building such a church as the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle, in Germany.” “ If Charlemagne,” says Gibbon, “ had fixed in Italy the seat of the Western empire, his genius would have aspired to restore, rather than violate, the works of the Cæsars; but as policy confined the French monarch to the forests of Germany, his taste could be gratified only by destruction, and the new palace and church of Aix-la-Chapelle were decorated with the marbles of Ravenna and Rome." The fact is, that the Byzantine or Romanesque style continued, with various degrees of beauty, over the Continent, and in this country, till it was superseded by the introduction of the pointed style. Möller, from whom we extract fig. 146. which represents the portico of the Convent of Lorsch, situate about two and a half German miles from Darmstadt, considers it as all that remains of the first church built in the time of Charlemagne. The same learned author observes, that, on comparison with each other of the ancient churches of Germany, two leading differences are discoverable in their styles, of which all others are grades or combinations. The first, or earliest, whose origin is from the South, is, though in its later period much degenerated, of a highly finished character, distinguished by forms and decorations resembling those of Roman buildings, by flat roofs, by hemicylindrical vaults, and by great solidity of construction. The second and later stvie still preserves the semicircular forms; but the high pitched roof, more adapted to the seasons

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of a northern climate, begins to be substituted for the flat roof of the South, as at the ca. thedral of Worms on the west side, the western tower of the church at Gelnhausen, and in many other examples.

284. We are now approaching a period in which more light can be thrown on our subject than on that we have just quitted. In the ninth century, on, as it is said, the designs of a Greek artist, rose the cathedral of St. Mark at Venice, the largest of the Italian churches in the Byzantine style. Its plan is that of a Greek cross, whose arms are vaulted hemicy. lindrically, and, meeting in the centre of the building, terminate in four semicircular arches on the four sides of a square, about 42 ft. in length in each direction. From the anterior angles of the piers, pendentives gather over, as in St. Sophia, at Constantinople, and form a circle wherefrom rises a cylindrical wall or drum in which windows for lighting the interior are introduced. From this drum, the principal dome, which is hemispherical, springs. Longitudinally and transversely the church is separated by ranks of columns supporting semicircular arches. The aisles of the nave and choir, and those of the transepts, interseet each other in four places about the centre of the cross, over which intersections are small domes ; so that on the roof are four smaller and one larger dome. In the exterior front towards the Piazza San Marco, the façade consists of two stories, in the centre of the lower one whereof is a large semicircularly arched entrance, on each side of which are two other smaller arched entrances of the same form. These have all plain archivolts springing from the upper of two orders of columns. On each Aank of the façade is a smaller open arcade sprir.ging at each extremity from an upper of two orders of insulated columns.

A gallery with a balustrade extends round the exterior of the church, in front whereof, in the centre, are the four famous bronze horses which once belonged to the arch of Nero. The second story towards the Piazza San Marco consists of a central semicircular aperture, with two blank semicircular arches on each side, not quite so high and wide. These five divisions are all crowned by canopy pediments of curves of contrary flexures, and ornamented with foliage. Between each two arches and at the angles a turret is introduced consisting of three stories of columns, and terminated by a pinnacle. The building has been considerably altered since its first construction; and, indeed, the ornaments last named point to a later age than the rest of the edifice, the general character of which has, nevertheless, been preserved. There is considerable similarity of plan between this church and that of St. Sophia.

285. Very much partaking the character of composition of St. Mark, but dissimilar in

general plan, is the church of St. Anthony at Padua, which has six domes over the nave, aansepts, centre, and choir. It is, moreover, distinguished by two slender towers or minarets, which impart to it the air of a Saracenic edifice.

286. The Italian architecture in the Byzantine or Romanesque style preserved a very different sort of character from that of the same date in Germany and other parts of Europe. Thus,- taking the cathedrals of Pisa and Worms, whose respective periods of construction are very close together, — the former is separated into its nave and aisles by columns with Corinthian capitals, reminding one very much of the early Christian basilica ; in the latter, the separation of the nave from the aisles is by square piers. The cathedral at Pisa, with its baptistery, campanile, and the campo santo or cemetery, are a group of buildings of more curiosity than any four edifices in the world, and the more so from being so strongly marked with the distinguishing features of the Byzantine and Romanesque styles. The car bedral (fig. 147.), whose architect was Buschetto of Dulichio, a Greek, was built in the

beginning in the 17th century. It consists of a nave, with two aisles on each side of it, transepts, and choir. Its bases, capitals, cornices, and other parts were fragments of antiquity collected from dif. ferent places, and here with great skill brought together by Buschetto. The plan of the church is a Latin cross; its length from the interior face of the wall to the back of the recess is 311 ft., the width of the nave and four side aisles 106 ft. G in., the length of the transept 237 ft. 4 in., and its width, with its side aisles, 58 ft. The centre nave is 41 ft. wide, and has twentyfour Corinthian columns, twelve on each side, all of marble, 24 ft. 10 in. high, and full 2 ft. 3 in. in diaineter.

From the capitals of these columns arches spring, and over them is another order of columns, smaller and more nu. merous, from the circumstance of one being inserted over the centre of an intercolumniation below, and from their accompanying two openings under arches nearly equal to the width of such intercolumniations. These form an upper gallery, or triforium, anciently appropriated to the use of females. The four aisles have also isolated columns of the Corinthian order, bat smaller, and raised on high plinths, in order to make them range with the others. The trazsepts have each a nave and two side aisles, with isolated columns, the same size as those of the other. The soffit of the great nave and of the transepts is of wood, gilt, but the smaller ones are groined. The height of the great nave is 91 ft., that of the transepts about 84 ft., and that of the aisles, 35 ft. In the centre nave are four piers, on which rest four large arches, supporting an elliptical cupola. The church is lighted by windows above the second order of the interior. The edifice is surrounded by steps. The extreme width of the western front, measured above the plinth moulding, is 116 ft., and the height from the pavement to the apex of the roof is 112 ft. 3 in. The façade has five stories, the first whereof consists of seven arches, supported by six Corinthian columns and two pilasters, the middle arch being larger than the others : the second has twenty-one arches, supported by twenty columns and two pilasters; the third is singular, from the façade contracting where the two aisles finish, and forming two lateral inclined planes, whence in the middle are columns with arcbes on them as below. The columns which are in the two inclined planes gradually diminish in height: the fifth story is the same, and forms a triangular pediment, the columns and arches as they approach the angles becoming more diminutive. The two exterior sides have two orders of pilasters, one over the other. The roof of the nave is supported, externally, by a wall decorated with columns, and arches resting on their capitals. The whole of the building is covered with lead. The drum of the cupola is externally ornamented with eighty-eight columns connected by arches, over which are pediments in marble, forming a species of crowns. The principal point of difference in these cathedrals from the old basilicæ, in imitation whereof they were doubtless built, is in the addition of the transepts, by which a cruciform plan was given to these edifices. The style of the building in question is much lighter than most of the buildings of the period. But, whatever the taste

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Fig. 147.

BI-EVATION OF CATHEDRAL AT PISA.

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Fig. 150.

WORKS CATREDRAL.

tated from the works of Charlemagne; but that his feeble successors, deficient both in riches and power, were unable to equal them in magnitude or beauty of materials. During a large portion of the 9th century the country was a scene of conster. nation and bloodshed. The most celebrated, and almost the only foundation of consequence which took place during this dreary period, was the abbey of Clugny. It was built, about 910, by Berno, abbot of Balme, with the assistance of William, Duke of Aquitaine and Auvergne. But there is little doubt that the present church was built in the following oentury. During the 11th century, the French, relieved from their disordered state, hastened to rebuild and repair their ecclesiai.

tical structures, and their various cities and provinces vied with each other in displays of enthusiastic devotion. Robert the Pious, by his example, encouraged the zeal of his clergy and people ; and the science of architecture revived with majesty and effect from its fallen state. Morard, the abbot of St. Germain des Prés, was enabled by this monarch to rebuild the church of his convent on a larger scale. St. Geneviéve weg also restored, and a cloister added to it, by his order. He, moreover, made preparations for erecting a cathedral at Paris in a style of as great magnificence as the times would allow. At Orleans, the place of his nativity, he built the churches of Notre Dame de bonnes nouvelles, St. Peter, and St. Aignan, which last was consecrated in 1029. But our space does not allow an enumeration of all the works undertaken during his reign. About this time, the cathedral of Chartres was rebuilt by Fulbert, its bishop, whose great reputation, in France and the rest of Europe, enabled him to execute it in a manner till then unknown in his country. Canute, the king of England, and Richard, Duke of Normandy, were among the princes who assisted him

with contributions. His successor, Thierri or Theodoric, completed the building. The northern part was afterwards erected in 1060, at the expense of Jean Cormier, a native of Chartres, and physician to the king. The length of the church is 420 ft., its height 108 ft., and the nave 48 ft. wide. The transepts extend 210 ft. The abbey church of Cluny, which succeeded that above mentioned, was one of the largest and most interesting of the ecclesiastical monuments of France. It was begun in the commencement of the 11th century, by the abbot Odilo, and finished by his successor Hugh, in 1069. The ceremony of its dedication did not, however, take place till many years after. The style of architecture in France, in the 11th, was the same as in the preceding centuries ; but the churches were larger and more solidly constructed. The oldest buildings of France, with some exceptions, are traceable to this æra ; such are the venerable fabrics of St. Germain des Prés at Paris, St. Benigne at Dijon, those of Chartres, La Charité sur Loire (Cluny was destroyed 1789), and others ; these all remain to illustrate the history of the arts at this period. But as we have said before, and cannot too often repeat, the style which prevailed was no more than a debased and feeble attempt to imitate the ancient architecture of Rome, and its best examples are not, in style even, equal to those of the art in its lowest state under the reign of Dioclesian; indeed the investigation is only important as being one of the means by which we can arrive at a just conclusion on the state of civilisation at different periods. Mores fabricæ loquuntur is an expression of Cassiodorus, so true, that to prove it would indeed be lighting the sun with a candle ; and we must not trille with the patience of the reader.

290. The Saxon churches of England, to which and its more modern architecture our succeeding chapter will be entirely devoted, were very inferior in every respect to the Norman churches of France; and these latter differed materially from those in the neighbourhood of Paris, and further to the south. The Norman churches were larger in some examples ; but they were more rude in design and execution. The abbey church of St. Stephen, raised at Caen by William the Conqueror, and that founded by his Queen Matilda in the same city in honour of the Holy Trinity, are the chief examples of thi. peculiar manner of building introduced by the Norman prelates into England at the e

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