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ation
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the

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in

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have
been
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,
such

a

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the
weesome

,
the

undous
Sithedrals

of
Europe

;
and
within

the
city
of
Rome

W
persecuted

race

,
between

A.
D.
211
and

249
,
enjoyed

a
cal
mn
,
during

VF
its
name
long

after
We
ancient
basilica

,
which
derived

its
name

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Besirous of committing to ou homes

Out of the seven principal S. Lorenzo fuori

and to purchase lands even at Rome for the use of the community.
have been accomplished.

pleznaterials for tracing the origin whereof we speak.
274. The severe laws against the Christians which Severus had passed

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Veich

This emperor, edicts, no sooner published them, than he dives
del Je
$cceeded by Abubekr.

vermi

he had planned by
Becadence was strongly marked.
Comparatively modern
Wor
it :

The building for this purpose retained

In lib. v. c. 1. he gives us the details
Diocie, however, in many places the churches were demolished, though in some situat
Work of persecutiotion, of the imperial

again to breathe ; and though that emperor's religion, even to the period of his death, is
275. Under Constantine, in the bea Purple of the fourth century, the Christians bee
volved in some doubt, it is certain that his opinion,
was much inclined towards Christianity.
of Rome, namely, Sta. Croce di Gierusalemme, S. Giovanni )
Murà, S. Paolo, S. Pietro, S. Sebastiano, and Sta. Maria Maggiore, all but the last were
Bao Levs (a king), and Olxos (a house), was that part of the palace wherein justice was

the extinction of the kingly office, and was in use with the Romans as well as the Grecians.
Vitruvius does not, however, give us any specific difference between
Tangement, for which the reader is referred to his work. The name
wards transferred to the first buildings for Christian worship; ,
religious rites, but more probably with reference to the idea of sovereignty which the
supposed, the first Christian emperors used the ancient basilice for the celebration of their

highly
istles at
Sophia
thej
r of a

pitals,

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20

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Anne

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Chap. II.

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There can be no doubt that the most ancient Christian basilicæ were expressly constructed for the purpose of religion, and their architectural details clearly point to the epoch in which they were erected. These new temples of religion borrowed, nevertheless, as well ir their whole as in their details, so much from the ancient basilicæ, that it is not surprising they should have retained their name. We here place before the reader (fig. 141.) a plan ol

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the ancient basilica of S. Paolo fuori le Murà, and (fig. 142.) an interior view of it, whereby

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its general effect may be better understood. The latter shows how admirably it was adapted to the reception of an extremely numerous congregation. The numberless columns which the ancient buildings readily supplied were put in requisition for constructing these basilicæ, whereof, adopting the buildings of the same name as the type, they proportioned the elevation to the extent of the plans, and, in some cases, decorated them with the richest ornaments. Instead of always connecting the columns together by architraves on their summit, which might not be at hand, arches were spanned from one to the other, on which walls were carried up to bear the roofing. Though the practice of vaulting large areas did not appear till a considerable time after the building of the first Christian basilicæ, it must be recollected that the Temple of Peace at Rome had previously exhibited a specimen of the profound know. ledge of the Romans in the practice of vaulting : in that example, groined vaults of very large dimensions were borne on entablatures and columns. Nor does this knowledge appear to have been lost in almost the last stage of decline of Roman architecture under the emperor Diuclesian. In the baths of this emperor are to be seen not only groined vaults in three

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B. but

to

this ring

,
whose
span

is
nearly

70
A.
,
but
at
the
back

of
each

springer
The
nature

of
a
flying
buttress

,
is
contrived

to
counteract

the

thrust
76.

In
recording

the
annihilation

of
the
arts
on
the
invasion

of

o
arab

and
during

the
course

of
the
sirth
century

,
historians

har
thie
nations

,
qualifying

by
this
name

the
barbarous

style
which

the
7.
History
informs

us
that
as
soon

as
the
princes

of
the
Goths

an
with
the
emperous

styl
hemselves

in
Italy
,
they
displayed

the
greatest
anxiety

to
make

the

art
for

a
number

of
adverse
circumstances

they
would
have

sumeede
om
the
Romans
designated

as
barbarous

,
were
inhabitants

of
the

co
For
instance

,
at
Nismes

,
the
birthplace

of

Anto
bezst

of
Italy

,
who
actually
acquired

that
dominion

and
power

w
5 structed

at
first
by
their
defeats

,
they
Germans

,
the
Pannonians

,

an
their
submission

to
the
Roman
people

,
acquired

quite

as
great

i
lor

e
srespects

what

he
did
for
the

art
fom
the
Alps

to
the
extremity

of
Calabria

,
t
.

sere

in
a
state

of
high
cultivation

;
in
short

,
there
were
schools

as
good

it least the command, of his rival and successor, Theodoric, in 493.

Indeet,
Anus Pius,

ning possession
right of conquest
ssiodorus, in the
z Eh confidence
us esteem of his

Theodoric was

So he visited the
Sugion of a

278. Odoacer, son of Edicon, the chief of a Gothic tribe, after obt-
Borne in 476, preserved Italy from invasion for six years; and there is
Theodemir, had been educated at Constantinople, and though perse

long peria
of his oojects was the preservation of the arts.

« The reputation of Theodoric,says Gibbon, " may repose
he cultivation of science and art, he was very far from insensible to t
onferred on a country.

His architects were Aloysius for Rome,
od placed Theodoric on the throne.
f his fame could exist than the volume of public Epistles composed by
be visible peace and prosperity of a reign of thirty-three years; the unani,

Besides the capitals, Pavia, Spoleto, Naples, and
wn times, and the memory of his wisdom and courage, his justice and hu

Royal edicts were framed to prevent the abuses, neglect, order
eeply impressed on the minds of the Goths and Italians.The residence
apital of the Old World, where, during a residence of six months, he proved that one at

The death of Theodoric occurred in 526 ; his mausoleu
+ Ravenna chiefly, occasionally at Verona ; but in the seventh year of his re =
east of the Gothic kings was anxious to preserve the monuments of the

itizens upon works of art; and an architect, the annual sum of two hundred pound-
old, twenty-five thousand tiles, and the receipt of customs from the Luaine port,
ssigned for the ordinary repairs of the public buildings. Similar care was
talian cities, acquired under his reign the useful or splendid decorations of church
Daniel for Ravenna, his instructions to whom manifest his care for the art ; and under h

are all in a heavy debased Roman style, and
queduets, baths, porticoes, and palaces.

We know no examples of the period that bear
Passiodorus, for fifty-seven years minister of the Ostrogoth kings, was for
de tutelary genius of the arts.
ontains also the church of St. Apollinaris, which shows that at this period very little,
still in existence at Ravenna, being now called Sta. Maria della Rotunda.
ny, change had been made in the arrangement of large churches on the plan of the basilica
'he front of the convent of the Franciscan friars in the same town, which is reputed to be
le entrance to the palace, bears considerable resemblance to the Porta Aurea of Dioclesia 1

loss to understand the passage quoted by Tiraboschi, from Cassiodorus, who therein gires
particular description of the very great lightness and elegance of columns; thus - "
ieamus columnarum junceam proceritatem ? Moles illas sublimissimas fabricarum quasi
uibusdam erectis hastilitros contineri et substantir qualitate concavis canalibus excavata s.
I magis ipsas æstimes fuisse transfusas ; alias ceris judices factum, quod metallis durissimis
ideas expolitum." (Lib. vii. Var. 15.)
at these assertions of Cassiodorus; on the contrary, what is known of this period indicates
nd if they had been assisted by ministers like Cassiodorus, the arts
279. If the successors of Theodoric had succeeded to his talents ay
light have recovered; but, after the retirement of that minister, from
'itiges, towards 538, the arts were completely extinct.
lundered by Totila; and afterwards, in 553, this ill-fated city was
ras overrun by the Lombards, a people who quickly attained a high degree of civilization,
Lastern empire by the talents of Belisarius and Narses,
280. From the year 568 up to the conquest of Italy by Charlemagne, in 774, the

Illyrians

for the CORO

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und were much given to the practice of architecture. Maffei, Muratori, and Tirabosch have clearly proved that neither the Goths nor the Lombards introduced any particula style, but employed the architects whom they found in Italy. Fig 143. is the west en

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of the church of St. Michael, at Pavia, a work executed under the Lombards, and, therefore here inserted as an example of style. The anxiety, however, of the Lombards to preserve that arts was not sufficient to prevent their increasing decay, which daily became more apparent Not more than the Goths do they deserve the reproach for their treatment of and indiffer: ence to them. Besides fortifications and citadels for defence, they built palaces, baths, ant, temples, not only at Pavia, the seat of their empire, but at Turin, Milan, Spoleto, and Benevento Hospitals under them began to be founded. The Queen Theodelinda, in particular, signalised her pious zeal in founding one at Monza, near Milan, her favourite residence, and endowing it in a most liberal manner.

281. In the eighth century the influence of the popes on the fine arts began to be felt John VI. and Gregory III., at the commencement of the eighth century, showed great soli citude in their behalf. During this age the popes gained great temporal advantages, and their revenues enabled them to treat those advantages so as to do great good for Italy. 11 the ninth century Adrian 1. signalis. d binself in this passion to such an extent, that Ni

cholas V. placed on his monument the in scription, —

Restituit mores, mænia, templa, Domos. His works were many and admirable. Amon those of great use, he constructed porticoe from the city to San Paolo and S. Lorena fuori le Murà.

282. Before we advance to the age o Charlemagne, it will be necessary to notic the church of St. Vitalis, at Ravenna, whicl we have reserved for this place on account a the singularity of its construction.

It wa erected, as is usually believed, under the reigi of Justinian, in the sixth century. 144. and 145. The exterior walls are forme in a regular octagon, whose diameter is 128 A Within this octagon is another concentric one 54 ft. in diameter, from the eight piers whered (55 ft. in beight) a hemispherical vault i gathered over, and over this is a timber conica

roof. The peculiarity exhibited in the con A struction of the cupola is, that the spandrels ar

See fius

10
1

20

30

40

tilled in with earthen vases; and that round th

Fly. 144.

PLAN TT. VITATS, RAVENNA.

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