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of twɔ severies of the “great scaffolding” were given them for the removal of the whole ; and they were to havo the uses of all “ gynnes, whels, cables, hobynatts, saws, &c.; " they were to pay for the stone, and to have 1001. for each severy, or 12001. for the whole, money being advanced for wages as the works proceeded : the “chare roff," as the vault is called was to be sufficiently buttressed, and the whole performed in a perfect manner.

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The extreme width, measured from the face of one buttress to that of the other, is 04 feet, and from north to south, from the centre of one pier to that of the other, 24 feet; thus the area comprised in a severy, or space between two lines drawn through the centres of the buttresses on the plan, is 2016 feet, exactly double the area of one of the severies of St. George's Chapel, Windsor : the extreme width is the same, but the difference arises from the divisions in the one being double that of the other, as ineasured from east to


The area of the nave, 42 x 24 -

of the chapel on one side

336 ditto on the other

336 of the walls on one side

168 ditto on the other Hence we have for the areas of the space or void on the plan 1680 feet, and for the walls and pier 336 feet, or one-sixth of the whole 2016 feet, similar proportions to those which we




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shall afterwards find in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. In King's College the nave comprises half the entire area of a severy, and the remaining half is divided into three, one of which is given to each of the chapels, and the other divided between the points of support : in this beautiful building, with its majestically contrived roof of stone, the lightest construction is adopted. The catenarian curve exhibits the direction of the thrust of the vault, which falls within the base.

The stone roof we are now examining differs somewhat from that of Henry VII.'s chapel at Westminster; the area of the points of support is only one-half of those in the latter elegant example; in no instance have we so much effect produced by the mason's art, with so small a quantity of material : it is evident that the gradual changes made in the architecture of the mediæval period led at last to the greatest perfection, beyond which it seems impossible for us to advance.

In selecting a style of any one period, it may be fairly asked whether the principles found in the latter, or the economy adopted in the con. structions of the 15th century, might not be applied to it, and the same effect produced, — the section of the chapter-house at Wells, for instance, lightened of half its material : undoubtedly it might, for the lofty pointed arch, not having the thrust which the latter, struck from four centres, had, would exert less thrust, and be in favour of such a change.

But at the present day, when copies are rigidly made of the finest examples of each style, it would seem a bold innovation to suggest such an adoption; still it might be introduced, and probably would have been, had the freemasons continued an operative fraternity, and been required to build in the Lancet or other style, which superseded it. The same decora

Fig. 1309. VAULTING OF KING'S COLLEGE CHAPEL. tions an: 1 form of arch may be used in the later styles as in the earlier, as far as construction is concerned, and we have evi. dence of sufficient strength in the example before us; the principles are the same in each, though they may differ in form ; there would be no more difficulty in transforming one style to that of another, than was experienced by William of Wykeham, when he changed the Saxon nave of Winchester to the Perpendicular.

On the section shown at fig. 1308. a line is drawn exhibiting the catenarian curve, for the purpose of showing that the abutment piers are set out in correspondence with its principles; it is not contended that a knowledge of this curve guided the freemasons in proportioning their piers, or that their flying buttresses were always placed within it; but it is singular that in those structures where their true position seems to have been decided, the catenarian passes through them.

Bath Abbey section (fig. 1319.) is an example which exhibits this most perfectly; and by a comparison of its section with that at Wells (fig. 1272.), it will be perceived that the struts are differently placed, and that the earlier example is defective : fig. 1298, represents Roslyn



Chapel, in which there is evidently some improvement; but at the time of its construction perfect knowledge on this subject had not been attained. In a catenarian chain formed of links of equal length, every side is a tangent to the curve, and the direction of each link is at right angles to it, acting in a direction perpendicular to the line it forms in the catenaria ; and hence its useful application to the science of construction. It is quite clear that wherever the curve passes through the section of a building, stability is obtained; and where it does not, it is doubtful: certainly the best application of Aying buttresses is that which can be tested by this principle..

The main arches of the roof abut against the outer buttresses, and spring from a cluster of mouldings set round a circular pier; the situation of the small columns and hollows which decorate it being determined by the crossing of equilateral triangles. The ribs of each severy abut in the centre upon a circle 3 feet 6 inches in diameter, formed of two stones, and indicated by No. 1.: in the middle is a mortise-hole 9 inches square ; No. 2. is in width 17 inches in the widest part; No. 3 is 2 feet 2 inches; No. 4., 3 feet 8 inches; No. 5., the same; No. 6., 3 feet 3 inches; No. 7. 4 feet 3 inches ; No. 8., the same; No. 9., 3 feet 2 inches, and No. 10., which abuts against the outer wall, 4 feet.

By a reference to the plan on fig. 1312., it will be understood how the several rings of voussoirs which compose the quarter of the parabolic conoid abut and are locked one into the other : the construction of this vault is somewhat similar to that adopted by Soufflout at the Church of St. Geneviève at Paris, although his manner of applying it materially

Fig. 1311. differs.

The buttress in the present Fig. 1310. KING'S COLLEGE CHAPEL : RIBS OY VAULT. example has an area of 56 feet, equal to that of the piers, to which it is attached; or the two piers and buttresses together have an area of 224 feet : it is curious to find that of the 336 feet before given to the points of support, one-sixth should be applied to the piers, one-sixth to the buttresses, and the other portion to the walls between for 55 ft. 6 in. x 6=336 feet — the area of the points of support taken on both sides ; so equally are the parts even distributed.

When the Normans first used flying buttresses, as at the Cathedral at Chartres, the Abbaye aux Hommes at Caen, and several other buildings, they abutted them against the ordinary outside wall; but it was soon discovered that a greater resistance was necessary to oppose the thrust, and prevent the abutments from yielding. Salisbury Cathedral was probably one of the earliest where flying buttresses were used ; and the opinion of Sir Christopher Wren is worthy of quoting upon this subject, as it applies more particularly to the first constructed, and not so immediately to those erected in the fourteenth or fifteenth centuries, “ Almost all the cathedrals of the Gothic form are weak and defective in the poise of the vault of the aisles; as for the vaults of the nave, they are on both sides equally supported and propped up from spreading by the bowes or flying buttresses, which rise from the outward walls of the aisles : but for the vaults of the aisles, they are indeed supported on the outside by the buttresses ; but inwardly, they have no other stay but the pillars themselves, which, as they are usually proportioned, if they stood alone, without the weight above, could not resist the spreading of the aisles one minute : true, indeed, the great load above of the walls and vaulting of the nave should seem to confine the pillars




:rpendicular station, that there should be no need of butment inwards, but hath shown the contrary, and there is scarce any Gothic cathedral, that I have

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• 1513.

KING'S COLLEGE CHAPEL: BUTTRESSES, ETC. hes that rest upon that pillar, and therefore both conspire to thrust it inwards centre of the cross." s College chapel, flying buttresses are dispensed with, and happily the of construction had arrived at such perfection, when its astonishing vault was at we have no evidence whatever of its yielding in any part. m extraordinary that the Pointed style made so little progress in Italy, the ing always preferred: the architects of that country were probably unwilling a mode of construction so economical, half only of the material employed in and a quarter in the earliest of the Gothic style, being required for the basilica : where 100 rods of stonework would be used in the latter, 200 would be the style practised at King's College, St. George's Chapel, and Bath Abbey 400 for that of the Chapter-house at Wells; this result would lead to the at no style is so well adapted for the wants of the present day as the Byzantino

St. George's Chapel, Windsor.— If we sup-
pose a line on the plan to pass through the
centre of the buttresses and piers, and one
severy of the nave to be defined, we shall
have a width of 12 feet, and a length of
84 feet, the area of which is 1008 feet: after
this we shall find the area of the walls and
piers comprised within this severy to be
168 feet, or one-sixth of the whole; such are
the proportions of mass and void found in
this chapel. The clear width of the side
aisles between the columns is 11 feet 9 inches;
that of the nave 34 feet 10 inches, and be-
tween the outer walls 69 feet 2 inches: the
height of the top of the vaulting of the nave
is 54 feet 2 inches. The height up to the
springing line of the great vault over the
nave being equal to half the entire width,
it is evident that two squares must comprise
within them the entire building beneath this
line; upon setting them out we find the nare
and its pillars occupy one, whilst the other
is given to the side aisles, external walls, and

The Rev. John Milner, in his admirable
treatise on the Ecclesiastical Architecture
uf England, which has been the text-book
for all modern writers, states that “its rise,
progress, and decline, occupy little more
than four centuries in the chronology of the
world : as its charaeteristic perfection con-
sisted in the due elevation of the arch, so its
decline commenced by an undue depression
of it. This took place in the latter part of
the 15th century, and is to be seen, amongst
other instances, in parts of St. George's Chapel,
Windsor, commenced by Edward 1 V. in 1482;
in King's College Chapel, Cambridge, and in
the Chapel of Henry VII. at Westminster.
It is undoubtedly true that the architects of
these splendid and justly admired erections,
Bishop Cloose, Sir Reginald de Bray, &c.
displayed more art and more professional
science than their predecessors had done; but
they did this at the expense of the character-
istic excellence of the style itself which they
built in."

"In St. George's Chapel we have the work covered with tracery and carvings of the most exquisite design and execution, but which fatigue the eye, and cloy the mind by their redundancy :" but we have also a building constructed with one-half the materials that would have been employed had the style practised in the chapter-house of Wells been adopted.

The admirers of the Pointed style have not sought for the true principles which mark its several changes ; they have not examined into its constructive arrangements; had they done so, they would have perceived that, as the skill of the freemasons advanced, and their workmanship improved, they economised material, constructed more solidly, and produced a richer and more harmonious effect, without sacrificing any of the principles which governed their practice; the improvements they made were as great as those noticed when the

Fig. 1514. ST. GEORGE'S CHAPII, ".

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