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Fig. 1197.

It was

classes Pentandria, Decandria, and Icosandria, of Linnæus. They comprise the rose, the apple, cherry, and medlar blossoms; those of the strawberry, the myrtle, and many others

For circular windows consisting of six lobes, and based on the hexagonal formation (fig. 1195.), the class Hexandria seems to furnish the type, under which are found almos all the bulbous-rooted flowers, pinks, &c. These observations might be extended to a

great length ; but the
writer does not feel in-
clined to pursue the
system to the extent to
which it has been car-
ried by a German au-
thor (Metzger), who
bases the principles of
all pointed architecture
on the formations of the
mineral and regetable
kingdoms. In fig. 1196.
the octagon is the base ;
in fig. 1197. the nona-
gon; and in fig. 1198.

Fig. 1198
the dodecagon. Beyond the last, the subdivision is very rarely, if ever, carried.
not that all

these types were selected from a mere desire of assimilating to nature the decorations of the 13th century, but it sprung from that deep impression of the utility of

geometrical arrangement, which sought in the vegetable kingdom, and elsewhere, such forms as fell in with the outlines adopted. Similar formations based upon the arrangement of squares, triangles, and polygons, are exhibited in figs. 1335. to 1339., in the latter portion of this chapter, as obtained from the decorations of Amieus Cathedral.

Mr. Denison comments upon a particular figure in _window tracery, which appears to him to be very bad, and often adopted. He calls it the “broken-backed cusp,” (fig. 1199.) because it gives the feeling that it is

always going to break (like fig. 1205., doorway). By it, the cusps are made a principal instead of an accessory; the proper way being to make a sub-arch at the back of the lower pair of cusps (fig. 1200.), aud to thicken the trefoil above until it looks like a piece of solid stonework, and having a real bearing on each other, and capable of resisting pressure.

Few attempts have been made to point to the origin of tracery and its ramifications. As the spaces of window openings went on increasing, until at last they became gigantic, in several instances exceeding 40 feet, a construction of stone framework became absolutely necessary. This framework, as we find in examples of the early decorated period, was at first unornamented—mere pillars or mullions below, with segmental curves, crossing each other, to fill the arch. But by degrees these curves changed their character, and assumed all the infinite variety we now know under the term tracery. From great windows, this class of decoration descended to the minor parts of buildings; and at last we find that light, fragile, screen-work, to be the great depository of this kind of knowledge. Fixed geometric forms, rather than mere fancy, as the foundation of composition, are ever to be preferred as of the utmost importance to the designer, if he wishes or intends to arrive at a successful result.— Billings, Infinity of Geometric Design,

Our limited space warns us to refrain from the further elucidation of this subject; but before quitting it, we can refer to the many illustrations of the further development of

“tracery and geometric forms," forming a portion of the PRINCIPLES OF PROPORTION, treated hereafter, wherein examples are given from Westminster Abbey, Beauvais, Rouen, and other cathedrals.

To aid in the formation of tracery a perfect knowledge of practical geometrical drawing is requisite; we therefore refer the reader to that section in Book 11. where, commencing at par. 1007., he will find other more useful problems that will assist him in his designs. We append another application of the

problem “ to inscribe a circle in a given triangle," as being one Fig. 1201.

of those more gererally required in circular forms, and perhaps a quicker method than those above described. If a five-lobed figure be required, as in fig. 1201., obtain the triangle A B C from the five divisions, on a base line B C at a tangent to the circle ; bisect B C and join A D. Bisect the angle A B C by a line B E, and

Fig. 1199.

Fig. 1200.


where it crosses the line A D, as at F, will be the centre of the required circle or lobe. A circle with the radius A f being drawn, the other centres on the lines of division, as A G, A H, &c., are readily found.

Another usual geometrical problem in tracery work consists in finding the centre of a circle placed in the head of an arch. This has been eluci. dated by E. W. Tarn, in the Buildır for 1863, p. 221. Let A B C in fig. 1202. be an equilateral arch, and the width A B be divided into three equal portions A D E B. Let the arches D F and E G be drawn with the same radius as those of A and B, as DH. Then it is required to find the centre of the circle which shall touch the four arcs. Make E I equal to jih of E B, and with the centre A and radius Al draw an arc cutting the perpendicular or centre line of the window in K; then K is the required centre, and KL the radius of the circle.




D g. 1202.

Sect, XVI.


It is almost needless to observe that through the several changes of style the door. ways followed their several forms; our duty will, therefore, be to do little more than present the representations of four or five examples to the notice of the reader. The Prior's entrance at Ely (fig. 187.) is a fine specimen of a highly decorated Norman doorway. The earlier Norman doorways had but little carving. They are, as in fig. 1203., generally placed within a semicircular arch, borne by columns recessed from the face of the wall, and the whole sur. mounted with a dripstone. In fig. 187. it will be seen that the semicircular head of the door is filled in level with the springing, and sculptured with a figure of our Saviour in a sitting attitude; his right arm is raised, and in his left is a book. What is termed the vesica piscis surrounds the composition, which is supported by an angel on each side. These representations are frequently met with in Norman doorways. Many examples are composed of a series of recesses, each spanned by semicircular arches springing from square jambs, and occupied by insu

Fig. 1203. Jated columns; though sometimes the columns are wanting and the recesses run down to


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the plinth. The arches are very often decorated with the chevron, zigzag, and other Norman ornaments.

The early English doorways have the same character as the windows of the period; the smaller ones are often recessed with columns, from which a pointed arch is twined with 4 cut moulding on it and a dripstone over it. The more important doors, however, are mostly in two divisions, separated by a pier column, and with foliated heads. These are generally grouped under one arch, springing from clustered columns on each side, and the

space over the open-
ings is filled in, and
decorated with a qua-
trefoil, as in the door.
way to the chapter-
house at Lichfield
(fig. 1204.). Sculp-
ture often occurs in
the arrangement. The
door to the chapel of
St. Nicholas, at Lynn
(fig. 1205.), is a cu.
rious example of the
latter part of the de-
corated period. Fig.
1206., from Tatter-

shall Castle, LincolnFig. 1206. TATTERSHALL CASTLE.

colnshire, belongs to the Florid English or perpendicular period, whose simplest doorways usually had the depressed or Tudor arch, and without the square head which appears in the example. The more ornamental ones were crocketed, and terminated with finials, as appears in the face of the porch at King's College Chapel, Cambridge (fig. 1208.). The doorway at St. George's Chapel, Windsor (fig. 1207.), though later in date, is more simple than the last, notwithstanding the exuberance of ornament and tracery which had then very nearly reached its meridian.

Fig. 1207.


Sect. XVII.


The porch is a distinguishing feature both in ecclesiastical and domestic architecture throughout northern Europe during the whole of the mediæval period. In the case of the smaller churches it was usually attached to the north and south doors. When to the north, it was generally built of stone, while the south porch was more often of timber. In France the porches are usually of very grand proportions and of elaborate structure.

A Norman porch, with an upper story or parvise, a chamber which appears to have been variously appropriated, occurs on the north side of Southwell Minster, Nottinghamshire, and is arched (Rickman, p. 81.); and another at Sherborne, Dorsetshire, which is groined. The example at Malmesbury Abbey Church is perhaps the finest of the few that exist of this period. An early English porch with a chamber remains on the north side of St. Cross Church, Hampshire. The porch at Felkirk, in the West Riding of York. shire, of late early English or early decorated date, has a roof formed of stone ribs 1 foot in breadth by 10 inches in depth, plain chamfered at the angles, placed about 18 inches Apart, springing from a string or impost about 4 feet from the floor. A complete illustiation of this interesting example is given in Robson, Mason's Guide. The same simple plan is followed in those at Barnack, Northamptonshire, and at Middleton Cheney, Northamptonshire. The south porch at St. Mary's Uffingdon, Berkshire, is groined. This feature was extensively used in this period, as at Salisbury and Wells.

A beautiful example of a vaulted roof to a shallow porch occurs in the decorated church at Higham Ferrars, Northamptonshire (Rickman, p. 111., also giving a plain vault with richly moulded door jambs at the west porch of Raunds Church, Northamptonshire). Stone ribs are employed in the restry or chapel at Willingham Church, Cambridgeshire (Rickman, p. 179., decorated); the chapel is 14 feet 1 inch long, and 9 feet 9 inches wide, as shown in Lysons' Cambridgeshire, p. 285. In this, and in the following, periods, the groined roof became common, and partook of all the varied enrichment exhibited in larger roofs. The porches exceed in profuseness of decoration those of the preceding style: they were almost universally adopted. The south poreh of Gloucester, and the south-west porch of Canterbury are beautiful examples. In the former, canopied niches occupy tbe front over the doorway, the front being crowned with an embattled parapet of pierced fanelling, and at the quoins are turrets embattled and finished with crocketed pinnacles.

Fig. 1208.


The example here given of the shallow porch at King's College Chapel, Cambridge fiy. 1208.), is beautiful in design and in proportion. The north porch at Beverley Minster rises somewhat higher than the aisle, the upper part forming a parvise. The dvor has a fine feathered straight-sided canopy, oler one of ogưe form, both crocketed. It is Hanked with niches, buttresses, and pinnacles; the whole front is panelled and crowned with a lofty central pinnacle, hav. ing a niche. An idea of it will be gained from the illustration given as a frontispiece to the present edition. The south porch of Leverington Church, Cambridgeshire, is groined, and also has carved bosses. Over it is a parvise 10 feet 1 inch wide and 14 feet 4 inches in length. The covering (of slabs of stone ?) is supported by six arched stone ribs, placed 2 feet 1 inch apart, and 9 feet 5 inches span; the rib is 4 inches wide, 6 inches in depth, and chamfered on the lower edge. It has a richly perforated stone ridge ornament. The section and details are given in Builder for 1848, p. 91, which also (iii. 598.) illustrates the south porch at North Walsham Church, Norfolk, which is lofiy and open to the roof, it not having been divided into stories.

It is a specimen of the mixture of flint with stone details. The south porch of a church near Evesha'n, in Worcestershire; the cacristy, also at Felkirk : and the porches at the churches of Strelly, in Nottinghamshire; of All Saints, at Stamford; and of Arundel, in Sussex. have interesting stone roofs.

In the case of domestic buildings. the porch, as at Wingfield Manor House, Derbyshire, has a story over the entrance, differing from those at Eltham, Croydon, Cowdray (which has an elaborate groined stone roof ), and many others, having only one story. That at Porchester Cas le hall was the whole height of the building, having a room above the entrance to the hall, which was elevated on a basement story, and was reached by a figlit of steps occupying the lower story of the porch. At Dartington Manor House, Derbyshire, and at East Barsham, Norfolk, there are two stories above the entrance, an arrangement frequently observed in similar erections, as at Thorpland Hall, Norfolk, and at Eastbury House, Essex, erected cir. 1572. From the architectural prominence given to this feature in domestic buildings, t.e designation * porch house was often employed.

So very exceptional is the use of brickwork in England in mediæval work, at any rate lintil the common brick porches, which were added in the 17th century, that we are induced to notice one of the many examples in this material executed abroad, in Ger. many especially. The north porch of Lübeck Cathedral (fig. 1209.), is described by G. E. Street, as "a 13th century addition, of two bays in depth, with groining piers of clustered shafts with sculptured capitals, and a many-shafted doorway of the best character. interior is probably mainly of stone, but the exterior is all of brick. The archway is boldly moulded, and above it is a horizontal arcaded corbel table, stepped up in the centre to admit the arch The gable is boldly arcaded upon shafts, and las a stepped corbel table, with a double line of moulded bricks above it next to the tiles. A couple of simple open

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Fig. 1209.



arches are pierced in each side wall, and there are sat pilasters at the angles. In the gable, enclosed within the arcading, are some circular openings, one of which is cusped with small foliations formed of brick. The moulded bricks in the main arch are of two kinds only, one a large boltel, the other a large hollow, and these arranged alternately with plain square-edged bricks, produce as much variety as is needful. The jamb of the doorway is of plain bricks, built with square recesses, in which detached stone shafts are placed. The capitals throughout are of stone, and carved with simple foliage. Perhaps no other example is more completely all that it should be in the use of its materials. The exterior is simple in all its details, yet sufficiently enriched by their skilful arrangement to be thorougly effective; whilst in the interior, where more adornment was naturally required, brick is frankly abandoned, and the richly moulded and sculptured ribs and archivolts are all of stone, though I have no doubt the vaulting and walls are, as on the outside, of brick. The only tracery which can be properly executed in brick is in fact the simplest plate trucery (and even this requires great skill and care in its execution), or that sinple fringe of cusping round an opening which occurs in the porch, and which may be executed with ease with a single pattern of moulded brick often repeated." Church Builder, 1868, p. 56. We have somewhat altered the arched entrance as shown in Mr. Street's sketch, understanding that this porch has been lately restored in this manner.

Sect. XVIII.





Europe has been considered by J. H. Parker, Transactions of the Institute of British Architects, to be indebied to Caen and its neighbourhood for that very interesting feature, the Gothic spire of stone. He has also traced its history from the low pyramid of Thaon

Church, Normandy, dating about the end of the 17th century, shown in fig. 1210., whereof the stones are left rough within and overhang one another, while at the base a large piece of timber was introduced as if to bind the whole together (fig. 1211.), which has now entirely de. cayed. The apex has also decayed or been removed. The spires of Comornes near Bayeux; Basly near

Caen, middle of 12th century; and Fig 1211.

Rosel, are of the same character, and

are followed by those at Huppeau n'ar Bayeux, which is considerably taller, but of about the same date ; Vaucelles, near Caen ; St. Loup, near Bayeux ; St. Contest, near Caen ; and Bougy, which is of a fine transitional character, as is that at Douvres ; the small square spires at the east end of St. Stephen's at Caen ; and the elegant lofty octagonal spire with square pinnacles at Ducy, which is a little earlier than the elegant western spires of St. Stephen's at Caen. On that building are altogether eight spires, varying in date from one of about the middle of the 12th century on a stais turret ; the two pairs of early Gothic work of the choir ; to the light western spires which possess pinnacles of open

work at the angles and in the centre of each face; these Fly. 1210.

date about 1250. The fine spire on St. Peter's Church, at Caen, dates at the beginning of the 14th century, and is commonly quoted as the perfection of a spire (figs. 1212. 1213.). It is octagonal, with openings pierced in the flat sides. That of St. Saviour's is later and not so good. Nearly all the spires in this district have the surface of the stone cut to imitate shingles, a clear proof of their having had a timler prototype. The spires at Bayeux Cathedral were probably being built at the same time as those at St. Stephen's Church, which they resemble. Secqueville Church has one of nearly the same date.

Of later date are the spires at Bretteville, Bernières, and Langrune, coming up to the middle of the 13th century. They are all of elegant design, and light construction. After these are the unfinished spires of Norrey and Audrieu, closing the century.

Illustrations of several of these buildings will be found in Britton's Normandy. Mr. Ferg'isson considers that the spire took its origin from the gable termination seen in some early reign towers.


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