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SECT. II.

ORIGIN ANIS PROGRESS OF BUILDING,

Fig. 1.

RUINS OX PISTLA.

3. The original classes into which mankind were divided were, we may safely ass those of hunters, of shepherds, and of those occupied in agriculture; and the building protection which each would require, must have been characterised by their several pations. The hunter and fisher found all the accommodation they required in the

and caverns of rocks; and the indo
which those states of life induced, 1
them insensible or indifferent to gr
comfort than such naturally-formed
bitations afforded. We are certain
thus lived such tribes. Jeremiah (
xlix. 16.), speaking of the judg
upon Edom, says, “ O thou that dw
in the clefts of the rock, that holdes
height of the hill;" a text which o
has received ample illustration from
vellers, and especially from the labou
Messrs. Leon de Laborde and Linai
the splendid engravings of the rui
Petra (fig. 1.). To the shepherd,
inhabitant of the plains wandering
one spot to another, as pasture be
inadequate to the support of his fi
another species of dwelling was mor
propriate ; one which he could ret
with him in his wanderings: this wa
tent, the type of the architectur
China, whose people were, like all
Tartar races, nomades or scenites, thu
shepherds or dwellers in tents.

Wh portion of the race fixed its abode

the purposes of agriculture, a very ferent species of dwelling was necessary. Solidity was required as well for the per: comfort of the husbandman as for preserving, from one season to another, the fruits of earth, upon which he and his family were to exist. Hence, doubtless, the hut, which authors have assumed to be the type of Grecian architecture.

4. Authors, says the writer in the Encyc. Methodique, in their search after the orig architecture, have generally confined their views to a single type, without considering inodification which would be necessary for a mixture of two or more of the states of mank for it is evident that any two or three of them may co-exist, a point upon which more be said in speaking of Egyptian architecture. Hence have arisen the most discordant contradictory systems, formed without sufficient acquaintance with the customs of diffi people, their origin, and first state of existence.

5. "The earliest habitations which were constructed after the dispersion of mankind the plains of Sennaar (for there, certainly, as we shall hereafter see, even without the evid of Scripture, was a great multitude gathered together), were, of course, proportione the means which the spot afforded, and to the nature of the climate to which they were i adapted. Reeds, canes, the branches, bark, and leaves of trees, clay, and similar mate would be first used. The first houses of the Egyptians and of the people of Palestine of reeds and canes 'interwoven. At the present day the same materials serve to form houses of the Peruvians. According to Pliny (1. vii.), the first houses of the Greeks only of clay; for it was a considerable time before that nation was acquainted with process of hardening it into bricks. Wond, however, offers such facilities of construction, that still, as of old, where it abou

The Abyssinians still build with clay and ru its adoption prevails. At first, the natural order seems to be that which Vitru describes in the first chapter of his second book. " was the mere erection of a few spars, united together with twigs, and covered with

“ The first attempt,” says our aul Others built their walls of dried lumps of turf, connected these walls together by mear timbers laid across horizontally, and covered the erections with reeds and boughs, foi purpose of sheltering themselves from the inclemency of the seasons. that flat coverings of this sort would not effectually shelter them in the winter season; made their roofs of two inclined planes, meeting each other in a ridge at the summit whole of which they covered with clay, and thus carried off the rain."

The same au

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Finding, how

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