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either be joined together for the purpose of bringing the whole into one point of view, or bound up separately, in an Atlas; as may suit the fancy or convenience of the purchaser.
By the aid of a series of observations of latitude and longitude, taken by Capt. Huddart, along the Malabar coast, or western coast of India, the form of the peninsula, &c. is now brought very near to the truth: and the eastern coast, by the observations of Col. Pearse, is much improved, in the distribution of its parts, although its general form has undergone but little alteration. A measured line has also been drawn from the Bengal provinces to Nagpour, in the very centre of India: which has not only established an important geographical point, in a part where it was most wanted ; but has been the means of furnishing a great deal of matter towards filling up the vacant intervals on three sides of that point. Lastly, the war with Hyder Ally and Tippoo Sultan, his successor, has produced much new geographical matter, in various parts of the peninsula, by the marches of the different armies, and their detachments; particularly that of Col. Fullarton, in the southern provinces and Coimbettore. These are the most material acquisitions to the present Map, as.they, in effect regulate a considerable part of the general outline, and determine the proportions of some of the principal members of it. But of the kind of materials, which without affecting the general proportions of the Map, serve the purpose of filling up the void spaces in it, there will be found very great abundance. In particular, Guzerat, and the Rajpoot provinces, have undergone very
considerable improvement; as well as the Panjab country and Sindy. The upper part of the course of the Ganges, to the cow's mouth, or cavern through which the Ganges passes ; and the course of the Gogra river to its fountains; are both inserted from the work of M. Bernoulli. In short, additions and corrections are disseminated over the whole map: and, in general, if wé except the south part of Berar, the western part of the peninsula, and the countries bordering on the river Indus, and the Panjab, the Map is filled up in such a degree, as to have no considerable blanks in it.
As Mr. Forster's route from India to Russia furnished some new ideas, and elucidated many former passages, I judged it proper to express his route to the Caspian sea, on a separate map ; and at the same time to add to it, the countries contiguous to Hindoostan on the north and north-west ; so as to include Samarcand, and the marches of Alexander from the borders of the Caspian sea, to the river Jaxartes (the modern Sihon, or Sirr).
In the division of HINDOOSTAN into soubahs, &c. I have followed the mode adopted by the Emperor ACBAR, as it appears to me to be the most permanent one: for the ideas of the boundaries are not only impressed on the minds of the natives by tradition, but are also ascertained in the Arin ACBAREE ; a register of the highest authority. But for the lower parts of the Deccan, and the peninsula in general, this standard being wanting, I had recourse to the best information I could get, which was not, indeed, of the most perfect kind : and therefore I directed my attention principally to the state of the modern divisions in those quarters; the impressing a clear idea of which, is one principal aim of the work.
It must be observed, that since the empire has been dismembered, a new division of its provinces has also taken place ; by which means, some soubahs now form a part of the dominions of three or more princes; and very few are preserved entire. These modern divisions are not only distinguished in the Map by the names of the present possessors; but the colouring also is entirely employed in facilitating the distinctions between them. So that the modern divisions appear, as it were, in the fore ground; and the ancient ones in the back ground; one illustrating and explaining the other.
Considering the vast extent of India, and how little its interior parts have been visited by Europeans, till the latter part of the last century, it ought rather to surprise us, that so much geographical matter should be collected during so short a period ; especially where so little has been contributed towards it by the natives themselves, as in the present case. Indeed, we must not go much farther back than thirty-five years, for the matter that forms the basis of this Map. And it must not be forgotten, that the East-India Company have caused a mathematical survey to be made, at their own expence, of a tract equal in extent to France and England taken together ; besides tracing the outline
of near 2000 miles of sea coast, and a chain of islands in extent
500 miles more. *
In general, I have acknowledged in the course of the Memoir, the assistance that I have received from the different Gentlemen, who have obligingly furnished me with the materials, therein discussed. But there were other kinds of assistance afforded, where no opportunities of acknowledgment occurred; such as the furnishing of useful hints, and correcting of errors, into which I had unavoidably fallen, tlırough ignorance of local circumstances, or historical facts; or misconceptions of the meaning of authors, whom I had consulted. The Gentlemen to whom I stand particularly indebted on this score, are, Mr. Francis Russell, Mr. David Anderson, and Mr. James Anderson ; Capt. Jonathan Scott,
• Whatever charges may be imputable to the Managers for the Company, the neglect of useful Science, however, is not among the number. The employing of Geographers, and Surveying Pilots in India ; and the providing of astronomical instruments, and the holding out of encouragement to such as should use them; indicate, at least, a spirit somewhat above the mere consideration of Gain : but above all, the establishment of an office at home, for the improvement of hydrography and navigation, and their judicious choice of a superintendant for it, reflects the highest honour on their administration; and ought to convince us, that in a free country, a body of subjects may accomplish, what the State itself despairs even to attempt. For, however surprising it may appear, it is nevertheless true, that the first maritime nation in the world, has no good chart to direct its fleets towards its own coasts: nor even a criterion, by which the public may be enabled to judge, of the merit of any hydrographical production whatsoever. So that the soundings on the coast of Bengal, are better known than those in the British Channel; of which, no tolerable chart exists, even at this day. During the late war, an East-India ship owed her safety to the knowledge ob. tained from a chart of the mouths of the Ganges (made, and published by order of the Company) into one of which she escaped from two French cruizers, and afterwards came into the Hoogly river by the inland navigation. We had just become masters of the hydrography of America, when we lost the sovereignty of it. I hope no one will think ominously of our Indian possessions from this circumstance : but even if he docs, he may make himself easy on the score of Great Britain.
+ To Mr. James Anderson, I am, in particular, indebted, for the account of the derivation of the term MAHRATTA, and for that of the ancestry of Sevajee : as also for the
Mr. Wilkins, Mr. Middleton, Col. Popham, and the late Col. Camac ; all of the Bengal establishment: Mr. Bensley, and Mr. Inglis, both of the East-India direction: Mr. Marsden, Mr. John Sulivan, and Mr. Callander ; severally of the establishments of Fort Marlborough, Madras, and Bombay: and Mr.
To Lord Mulgrave I am indebted for a copy of Mr. Forster's route from Jummoo to the Caspian sea: as well as for his Lordship's very ready communication of every species of information, that could be of service to the work in question.
The routes of Mr. Smith, and of General Goddard across the continent, from the Jumnah river to Poonah and Surat, contain much useful matter ; and have been the means of determining a number of geographical points.
A MS. account of the country of the Rajpoots, and other
provinces, on the south, and S W of Agra ; together with a map, both of them composed by P. Wendell, in 1779, were of very great use in describing the geography of those parts. And to render the MS. more valuable, there has been added to it, Mr. James Anderson's account of the changes that have taken place since that period, in consequence of Sindia’s attacks, and negotia
subject matter of the notes that accompany those articles. And to him, and to his brother, Mr. David Anderson (each of whom, at different times, resided in a public capacity with Madajee Sindia) I owe the most valuable part of the information, respecting the geographical division of the Mahratta States, and their tributaries.