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these roads are common for the first 10 į royal cosses; when the Bember road turns to the right, crossing the Chunaub at a ferry, six miles farther from Lahore than that which leads to Rotas; by which we ascertain that the Chunaub has a SW course here; as indeed it appears to have all the way from Kishtewar, near its fountains, to the Indus.
From Rotas to Attock the measured distance is 43 royal cosses, or 87 G. miles, in direct distance. The bearing is a little to the west of north by circumstances; for Paishawur is 10 minutes to the N of Rotas, in the tables, and Attock lies to the E by S, or ES E, of Paishawur, about 34 G. miles. The relative positions of these places, which affect those of Hussan Abdal and Cashmere, depend on the following data:
Mr. Forster crossed the Indus at Bazaar, 10 cosses above, or to the north-eastward of Attock. From Bazaar to Paishawur, he estimated at 29 cosses, W by S: according to which, Attock should bear from Paishawur about E by S, distant 24 cosses (common). Capt. Kirkpatrick's report is 15. royal cosses, or nearly 32 G. miles; and allowing the breadth of the Indus, and to the centre of each city, probably 34 may be reckoned; which will approach nearly to 24 cofses. But it would appear by the construction, that Paishawur should bear rather to the west, than W by S, from Bazaar ; and then Attock will be ES E, instead of E by S, from the former.
In adjusting the latitudes of Attock and Paishawur, regard is to be had to the discordancy between the difference of latitude deduced from the tables, and that arising from the construction between Lahore, Rotas, Sealkote, &c. We have before observed (page 85), that Lahore being in 31° 50', Rotas, falls by construction in lat. 32° 58', which is 17 minutes S of its latitude in the tables. Then, as we have no rule for correcting the latitude of Paishawur, which by the tables is only 10 minutes N of Rotas, whilst the construction allows 27, we can only call in aid a slight check, which the computed distance, by the direct road of Bheerah, affords to the position of Attock. Bheerah is 60 common cosses from Lahore, in a westerly direction. It appears in the Panjab map, a little to the N of W; and at 100 parts in 235, of the distance from Rotas to Moultan. And as Moultan (as we shall hereafter make appear) is 126 common cosses from Bember, whose position is ascertained in respect of Rotas and Lahore, Bheerah must be placed at about 11 minutes N of the parallel of Lahore; and at 851 G. miles distant from it; that being the produce of the 60 сosses.
From Bheerah the Emperor Baber made seven marches * to Nilab, near Attock (Kirkp. MSS.), and these I take at 77 G. miles; which intersect the line of distance from Rotas (87 G. miles) in lat. 33° 4', and as Paishawur lies about W NW, distant 34 G. miles from Attock, its latitude should not be more than 33° 18'. In the tables it is 33° 25'; I have placed it in 33° 18', lon. 70° 36': and Attock in lat. 33° 6', lon. 71° 15': and this allows nearly a mean between the difference of latitude by the tables, and that by the construction.
There is no kind of rule given for ascertaining the distance between Attock and Moultan: nor do the measured distances between Lahore and Cashmere, and Cashmere and Attock, serve at all to prove the position of the latter, more than presumptively; because the bearings are wanting.
Before I proceed to discuss the remaining positions in the Panjab, it will be proper to establish the positions of Cabul, Candahar, &c. because that of Moultan depends on Candahar : and without Moultan, the arrangement of the Panjab would be incomplete.
From Paishawur to Cabul, the measured distance is 62 royal
This route lay through Pirhala, which lies out of the direct line, it being only six marches from the Jhylum river, near the site of the town of the same name.
+ The Ayin Acbaree, Vol. II. p. 131, allows 180 cosses for the length of the Panjab, from tbe Setlege to the Sinde: but no particular points on those rivers are specified. Attock is probably alluded to on the Sinde; Ludhana, or Machiawara, on the Setlege. My new map gives 185 between Attock and Ludhana ; 188 to Machiawara.
cosses, or 125 G. miles direct distance, with the allowance for the ordinary degree of winding ; but some mountainous tracts intervening, I allow only 123: and this distance laid off to 34° 30', the latitude given for Cabul in the tables, places it in longitude 68° 34'. Mr. Forster reckoned go cosses, or about 129 G. miles: Otter reports six days journey, between Paishawur and Cabul. It appears that the
aggregate distance from Lahore to Cabul, by Attock, is given at 159 royal cosses; but the distance by the southern road, by Bheerah and Deenkote, is said to be much shorter. Capt. Kirkpatrick however, has not been able, as yet, to procure a statement of the distance, even in the grofs.
If we trace the line of measured distances from Cabul to Balk, in latitude 36° 21', the 98 royal cosses give 198 G. miles; and these a difference of longitude of 3° 5', which places Balk in longitude 65° 31'. In the tables of Nasereddin and Ulug Beig, Balk stands 101° east of the Fortunate Islands, or 16° east of Casbin ; which by M. Beauchamp's observation, is 49° 33' E of Greenwich: and this result places Balk in 65° 33'; only 2 minutes different from that, deduced from the opposite quarter, by construction. And if we compare the tabular difference of longitude between Balk and Canoge, it will be found to be 14° 50': whilst that by construction is 14° 45'.* The position of Balk, therefore, appears to be perfectly well adjusted, as far as can be judged by the quality of the materials before us; and corroborates that of Cabul.
But the longitude of Cabul being 104° 40' in the same tables, does not agree with the construction ; which allows 11° 42' difference of lon. from Canoge ; whilst that by the tables is only 11° 10'. This may be either an error in the copying of the tables, or in the original formation of them: probably the former, as • By the tables of Ulug Beig and Nasereddin.
By construction. Canoge 115° 50' east of the Fortunate Islands. 80° 16' east of Greenwich.
as Lahore is right; and then it might have been 104° 4', instead of 104° 40'. Candahar affords no light to us on the occasion, as its numbers are totally out, It may be observed in general, that the longitudes in the tables of Nasereddin, &c. along the southern line, between the Caspian sea and Lahore, through Herat, are falsely written, or calculated; whilst those in the northern line, through Nisabour, Meru, and Balk, agree with the intermediate distances.
Ghizni is reckoned 28 royal cosses from Cabul, or about 561 G. miles. Mr. Forster reckons the distance 20.1 farsangs; and says that a farsang is reckoned equal to 2 Hindoostanny, or common cosses: on this proportion the direct distance will be 581 G. miles. The bearing he estimated at S 1 W: and the difference of latitude in the tables being 55 minutes, agrees with the first report; and both seem to prove that a farsang is less than two Hindoostanny cofses.* M. Petis de la Croix, in his life of Gengiz Cawn, says that Ghizni is 8 journies from Bamian; but as this last is placed on the authority of measured distances from Balk and Cabul, it agrees to 8 marches of an army, instead of ordinary journies, from Ghizni; and I conclude that M. Petis de la Croix, ought to have read marches in the Oriental author whom he consulted. Ghizni is accordingly placed in lat. 33° 35', and 88 G. miles from Bamian; in which position it stands also about S. by W from Cabul.
Candahar is given at 83 royal cosses from Ghizni (Kirkp. MSS.), or about 1671 G. miles. However, there is great reason to believe that this measured route, which was that of an army with artillery and carriages, was not the direct one: for Mr. Forster went by a different route, and reckoned the distance only 512
It appears by Mr. Forster's route from Candahar to the Caspian sea, that more than 231 farsangs were required :o make a degree of a great circle; and as 42 Hindoostanny cofses are equal to a degree (see page 5), two such cosses will exceed a farsang, in the proportion of nearly one-seventh part. So loosely are the comparisons between the itinerary measures of different countries made! Thevenot says that a cofs is equal to balf a league!
farsangs; or at most 103 common cosses, which produce 147 G. miles. The direct road from Cabul to Candahar, leaves Ghizni far to the south : and the distance, according to a MS. of Col. Popham's, is 122 cosses, stated to be short ones. If common ones, they will produce 176 G. miles; and will agree with the distance produced by the compound course and distance of Mr. Forster, through Ghizni; Candahar being, as is supposed, in, or near the parallel of 33o; according to the tables: and according to this authority, Candahar will be in lon. 65° 33'.
I return from this long but necessary digression, to discuss the position of the city of Moultan, which gave rise to it.
Moultan is placed according to the measured road distance from Candahar and Lahore; which is corroborated by its distance from Bember. Its latitude in the Oriental tables will by no means accord with the result of those distances; and the difference is a large portion of a degree: for the tables in question give 29° 40', whilst the intersection of the distances points to about 30.1. Its distance from Attock is not given, which is unlucky, considering the great length and obliquity of the lines from Lahore and Candahar. But, for the following reasons, I conceive that Moultan cannot be lower than the parallel of 30.10.
ist. We learn from Capt. Kirkpatrick's MSS. that the distance of Moultan from Lahore, by the road which Dara Sheko marched to it, in his way to Candahar, is 77 royal cosses. But the tables of distances give only 70; and this number is frequently repeated; so that 70 is probably the distance by the directest road; 77 by the great road: and the mean of the two, 733, may be the properest for our purpose; as the rule for calculating the horizontal distance, is founded on the supposition of a moderate degree of winding in the road. And we learn from the same authority, that the road marched by Dara Sheko, from Moultan to Candahar, was 160 royal cosses. Now 160 royal cosses produce 323,4 G. miles of direct distance; and 731, 1484: and the intersection of these lines