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one might expect those rivers to lie next each other, of course. What farther strengthens this opinion, in my mind, is, that Ferose is said to have turned a larger rivulet, that originally ran into the Setlege, into a smaller one (the Selima) that ran towards Sunnam (Dowe I. 329). I should almost conclude, that the canal from the Set lege, led into these confluent waters. Before we proceed finally to attempt the description of the courses of the famous canals of Ferose, it will be necessary to fix, as geographical points, the places near to which the canals are supposed to pass.

Samanah, or Semana, a town of some note, is placed on the authority of Col. Polier's map, about S by W 40 G. miles from Sirhind. Samanah is of considerable importance to the geographical construction; it being the first point that can be recognized in the march of Tamerlane's army, after that conqueror left Batnir. Sherefeddin reckons it 52 cofses from Panniput; and in Col. Polier's map it is about 50. It is situated in the circar of Sirhind; and is bordered on the south by Hifsar, which has for its capital Hissar Ferozeh, celebrated on occasion of its being founded by Sultan Ferose III. as well as for its canals: for the country between Delhi and the Panjab, being scantily supplied with water, the Emperor Ferose III. undertook the noble as well as useful task of supplying it better; and at the same time meant to apply the water so furnished to the purposes of navigation. Capt. Kirkpatrick's friendly and well-directed attention has enabled me to give a general idea of Ferose's plan: although certain parts of it are yet obscure, for want of knowing how to apply the names of the rivers, and water courses, mentioned in Ferishta.

The position of Hissar Ferozeh, is clearly to be collected from Capt. Kirkpatrick's MSS. afsisted by Col. Polier's, and Bernoulli's notices. According to Bernoulli, Hissar is 60 cosses to the westward of Delhi: and it is also 40 from Sarsa, ES E, according to Kirkpatrick. Sarsa appears also in Polier's map, at 98 cofses from Delhi; which will be found to agree, considering that Hifsar

lies out of the direct line. Kirkpatrick also makes it to be 80 common cofses from the outlet of the canal, that leads from the Jumnah, by Sufedoon, to Hifsar; and Sufedoon being 30 royal cosses from that outlet, the complement, equal to 54 G. miles, should be the distance of Hissar from Sufedoon. And this last place is marked in Polier's map, at 20 G. miles W. by S from Panniput.

Hansi, a town whose proximity to Hifsar, has occasioned the latter to be often named Hansi-Hifsar, lies on the canal from the Jumnah, at 10 cofses from Hifsar, to the NE. This place is also 18 from Mahim; 30 from Dadari; both which places appear in Col. Polier's map. And Hansi, thus placed, adds confirmation to the position of Hissar: for according to a map communicated by Col. Murray, Hansi ought to stand 8 or 9 cofses SW of Jind, or Juneed; and this is the position that Hansi actually takes in Col. Polier's map, when placed as above, in respect to Mahim and Dadari.

Again, Capt. Kirkpatrick gives the distance of Hansi from Bahadernagur (111⁄2 cofses W of Delhi), circuitously through Rohtuk and Mahim, at 46 cofses; or at 57 from Delhi. And these places being also in Col. Polier's map, we are enabled to ascertain the direct distance, by allowing for the inflexions of the road, by its passing through those places.

Hifsar being thus satisfactorily placed, I proceed to the account of it, and of its canals. The site of this city and fortress was originally occupied by two villages, named Great and Little Luddas; they stood in the midst of a sandy desert, and were so ill supplied with water, that it was sold to the travellers who passed this way from Persia to Delhi. It was to remedy this defect in the city which Ferose proposed to build here, that he caused canals to be drawn to it, as we have seen above. The city and fortress were built of stone, brought from the neighbouring hills of Nosa, or Loosa; and they were completed in two years and a half; all the omrahs afsisting in the work.

It appears, that previous to the building of Hifsar, Ferose had made a canal from the Jumnah, near the northern hills, to Sufedoon, a royal hunting place; for the purpose of supplying it with water. Sufedoon is about 20 G. miles to the westward, or W by S, of Panniput. This canal was in length 30 royal cofses, or full 60 G. miles; and it passed by Carnawl and Toghlukpour. After the foundations of Hissar were laid, he drew two principal canals to it; one of which was a prolongation of the canal of Sufedoon, the whole extent of which was then 80 (common) cofses, or about 114 G. miles. Perhaps it may be proper in this place to mention, that Shah Jehan, about the year 1626, not only repaired and cleansed that part of the canal between the hills and Sufedoon, but prolonged it, by a new cut, to Delhi; an additional length of full 60 G. miles; and this prolongation obtained the name of Nebr Bebisht, or the canal of Paradise.

The other principal canal, was drawn from the Setlege river, to Hifsar Feroseabad. The outlet and course of this canal is not so clearly defined as the other: Capt. Kirkpatrick, to whom I am indebted for the information concerning Hissar and its canals, had it from a history of Ferose, written by Shumse Seraje, soon after the death of that great monarch, which happened in 1388. Shumse Suraje says, that the canal was made from the mouth of the Setlege: which Capt. Kirkpatrick concludes to mean the confluence of that river with the Beyah: for, after the meeting of those rivers at Ferosepour, the name of Setlege is no more heard of (above Moultan at least), that of Kerab being the name of the confluent waters. And this would seem to be corroborated by Ferishta, who says, that in the year 1355, Ferose went to Debalpour, where he made a canal of 100 miles in length, from the Setlege to the Fidger (Dowe, vol. I. p. 327). Concerning the identity of the Jidger, I have before expressed an opinion (page 70): conceiving it to be a stream that ran by Sirhind and Soonam. What follows in Ferishta, as translated by Dowe, I confefs I do not well comL

prehend. "He [Ferose] drew soon after, a canal from the Cag

gar, passing by the walls of Sirsutti, and joined it to the river of "Kera; upon which he built a city, named after him Feroseabad. "This city he watered with another canal from the Jumnah. "These public works were of prodigious advantage to the adja"cent countries, by supplying them with water for their lands, "and with a commodious water-carriage from place to place." It may, possibly, be a jumble of two sentences, which related to different cities, together: the river Kera, and Feroseabad, may relate to the city of Ferosepour, at the conflux of the Setlege and Beyah: and the canal from the Jumnah, to Feroseabad, a city founded by Ferose, in the vicinity of old Delhi. Capt. Kirkpatrick remarks an obscurity in the text of Ferishta in this place.

I confefs I have a different idea of the course of the western canal, from that derived from the words of Shumse Suraje; and should suppose the outlet of it, from the Setlege, was nearer to Ludhana than to Ferosepour; because, 1st. Considering the course of the Setlege, the level of the country between it and the Caggar, or the Jidger, would be against a canal cut from Ferosepour; especially when the waters were low. 2d. I am informed by Col. Polier, that the lands between the Setlege and Batnir lie very high, in the nature of an elevated plain; so that water is only to be had from exceeding deep wells: the nature of such a country is consequently against a canal on a level section. And, 3d. The rivers Setlege and Caggar diverge in their courses to such a degree, that the extent of a canal, in the lower part, would be almost double the length required.

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But although the precise geography of these canals may not be understood, we can be under no difficulty concerning the general scope of Ferose's design; which was to distribute water through a large extent of dry, sterile country, with a view to fertilize it; and also for the purposes of water carriage. That he in a great degree, accomplished the former, appears by the account of Shumse

Suraje; the substance of which is communicated by Capt. Kirkpatrick :* but concerning the latter, we have no other information than that contained in the above quotation from Ferishta. Neither the breadth, or the depth of the large canals, are mentioned by either historian. That which conducted the water from the hills to Sufedoon, is said to be about four yards in breadth.

Whether this grand design of Ferose's was completely executed, I have no means of knowing. Probably, as we have heard so little of the western canal, it might never have been rendered adequate to the purposes of navigation. Had it been completed, it must have ranked with the greatest works of this kind: we should then have seen two capital rivers, which traverse a large part of southern Asia, which enter the sea at the distance of 1500 British miles asunder, and which stretch out their arms, as it were, to meet each other, united by art; and those, by nature, to a third; so as to form an uninterrupted inland navigation from the frontiers of China to those of Persia !

The distance between the navigable parts of the Jumnah and Setlege, is about 105 G. miles, in a direct line: but according to Ferose's plan, it might be 240. It appears that one of the branches of the eastern canal led into the Jumnah at Kungipara.

The length of this dissertation on the canals of Ferose, may pofsibly appear tedious to many; but improvements of this kind occur so seldom in the history of Hindoostan, where barbarous conquests and massacres are oftentimes the principal subject, that they are dwelt on with pleasure whenever they appear: and we

Besides the main canals that have been mentioned, it seems that several others were cut, which united them in different parts, and in different directions. The banks, both of the main canals and their branches, were covered with towns: such as Juneed (the Jind of Polier's map), Dhataret, Hansi, and Toghlukpour. Ferose, by sanction of a decree of the cazees, assembled for the purpose, levied a tenth of the produce of the lands fertilized by these canals; which he applied, together with the revenue yielded by the lands newly brought into cultivation, to charitable uses. The lands of Ferozeh, which before had produced but one scanty harvest, now produced two abundant ones.

This circar (Hifsar-Ferozeh), ever since the conquest of Hindoostan by the Moguls, has constituted the personal estate of the heir-apparent of the empire.

[Capt. Kirkpatrick's MSS.]

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