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it is, the scale appears to be ill proportioned in the different parts of it.
Narnaveram and Bomrauzepollam, are both placed on the authority of Mr. Pringle’s observations: and the Pullicate lake is from the Jaghire map; Col. Pearse's route; and other authorities. This lake, called by D'Anville, Ericans, seems to owe its existence to the same cause as the Chilka lake; that is, to the sea's breaking through a low sandy beach, and overflowing the lands within; for its communications with the sea, are extremely narrow, like the embouchures of small rivers. This lake is in extent 33 B. miles from N to S, and 11 over, in the broadest part'; and contains some large islands within it. One of these is named Ircum, in Mr. Barnard's
map of the Jaghire, published by Mr. Dalrymple: and as M. D'Anville names this island, as well as the lake, Ericans, I conclude it to be a córruption, or misconception of Ircum.
I have not found it an easy task to fix the positions either of Innaconda, Combam, Adoni, or Canoul. On these four places, many others depend, in the construction of the map; and they are neither of them ascertained to my satisfaction. There is, in particular, a degree of obscurity in the accounts of Canoul, that I cannot clear up. My local information fails me entirely, in this place: and this kind of knowledge is so requisite to a geographer, that no degree of study or investigation, can compensate for the want of it. It not only enables him to reconcile names and situations ; but oftentimes furnishes him with a criterion to distinguish the value of his materials. Few Europeans, vagrant ones excepted, have visited these places since the time of M. Bussy (1751), and it is a misfortune to geography, that his marches between Arcot, Hydrabad, Adoni, Canoul, and Seringapatam, have not been recorded, in the same intelligent manner, as the rest of his marches have been; and from whence we have drawn so much information . But, however I may repine, as a geographer; I ought, perhaps, as a philosopher, to be satisfied, that so much has been preserved.
Innaconda (called also Viniconda, and Huiniconda) is a fortress on a hill; within, or bordering on, the Guntoor circar. It is undetermined, as to its precise bearing, from any known place: therefore I have been reduced to take it on the authority of some vague maps, and by a reference to circumstances: and have placed it about N W by N from Ongole (a point in Col. Pearse's route), Mr. Pringle measured the road, and found the distance to be 464 B. miles; for which I allow 36 G. miles, in horizontal distance. By the Malabar map, it is 28 cosses, which may be reckoned about 45 G. miles. It is somewhat more westerly in bearing, and also more distant, from Medipilli, than from Ongole. Combam is reckoned 25 cosses from Innaconda; and 32
from Ongole; or about 51 G. miles from the latter. It is placed in the map, at 48 miles distant, and nearly west, from Ongole: but as its parallel is regulated by the assumed position of Innaconda, it is subject, of course, to the same errors. Tavernier's route from Gandicotta to Masherlaw, passed through Combam (which he calls Kaman), and its position accords very well, with the proportion of distance assigned it. More will be said on this subject, hereafter.
Adoni is reckoned to be 66 cosses from Combam, by the Malabar map: and 67 by a route transmitted by Col. Harper to the Madras government; and which was collected from the information of his guides, while at Innaconda, in 1781. These cofses on the Carnatic scale (371 to a degree), are equal to 106 G. miles; and this is the distance allowed in the construction, between Combam and Adoni, westward. And for its parallel, no better authority can be found, than its distance from Gooty, which is situated to the SE of it, two days journey, or about 36 G. miles, according to my calculation; which is founded on some considerable degree of experience in these matters. Adoni, thus placed, is 63 G. miles NNE from Roydroog, and about 44 south of the Kistnah river,
Adoni, as to general position, is about the middle of the peninsula, and exactly in the parallel of Goa. It was, not many years ago, a fine city, and extremely well fortified, situated on the side of one of the branches of the Toombuddra* river; and the capital of a small principality, or rather feudatory province, of Golconda. A part of its history will be found in Mr. Orme's works. It was since assigned, together with Rachore, and Guntoor, to the late Bazalet Jung, brother to Nizam Ally, the reigning soubah of the Deccan. Hyder's desperate grasp fixed on this, as well as the rest of the provinces on the south of the Kistnah, previous to the late war: but all of them were, or ought to have been, restored by the peace of 1782. Adoni certainly was: because the attack of Adoni, then in the hands of the Nizam, was one of Tippoo's exploits, last year (1787).
The position of Canoul appears the most uncertain of all. The authorities for it are, the Malabar map, in which its distance from Rachore, Cuddapah, Adoni, and Combam, are given in cosses; but the intersections of these from the different points, do not . agree. The map alluded to, is not constructed by a scale, but rudely sketched out, without much proportion being observed either in the bearings, or distances of places, from each other: and the names, and the distances between the stages, are written in the Malabar language. Canoul is there said to be 57 cosses from Cuddapah; 38 from Combam; 28 from Rachore; and the same from Adoni: and 36 from Timapet, `a place that occurs in General Joseph Smith's route from Hydrabad to Sollapour. By this account, the number of cosses between Cuddapah and Rachore will be 85; which is really the distance on the map, within two cosses; reckoning 371 to a degree. Nor are the crofs distances from Com
I suppose the termination buddra in the name of this river, means the same as the budda or baddar in Nerbuddah, and Soanbudda, in the north part of the Deccan, and in Hindoostan. If the supposition be true, that the names of large rivers undergo little alteration, the language to which Gonga or Gang belonged, must have had a wide range; since we find it applied both in Ceylon, and at the foot of mount Himmaleh.
bam, and from Adoni, far out; but that from Timapet is irreconcileable. However, as the position of it agrees pretty well with Cuddapah, Rachore, and Combam, it may be concluded that the distance of Timapet is falsely given. In a map of M. Bussy's southern marches, said to be composed by M. D'Anville, Canoul is represented in a very different position from the above result; for there it stands only 18 cosses from Rachore, instead of 28.
Condanore is 15 cosses to the east of Adoni, according to Col. Harper's route.
Rachore, or Adoni-Rachore, a city, on or near the south bank of the Kistnah river, and not far above the conflux of the Toombuddra with it, and below that of the Beemah, has its position from the
inap of M. Bussy's northern marches. Rachore is four days journey from Adoni, according to the report of an European who travelled it. This person came from Seringapatam, by way of Sera and Gooty, to Adoni; and communicated this, and several other particulars in his itinerary, to Mr. W. Townsend; who obligingly gave them to me. It is reckoned three days journey from Seringapatam to Sera (or Merki-Seray), six more to Gooty; two from thence to Adoni; and four more to Rachore. If we take the whole distance through these several points on the map, the produce will be 276 G. miles. A day's journey for an ordinary traveller, may be fixed at 22 British miles, in road distance; which reduced to horizontal, will be 17 to 18 G. miles : and it will be found that the 276 miles will be nearly 15 days journey, at that rate: and the intervals are generally well proportioned. Although 22 miles are stated to be a day's journey for an ordinary traveller, yet a cossid or courier goes ordinarily from 30 to 33 British miles in a day: and that for many days together.
Timerycotta, a considerable fort in the Palnaud country (which is a district belonging to the Carnatic, but situated towards the Kistnah river, on the west of Guntoor) governs most of the positions in Guntoor and Palnaud ; as also the crossing-place of the Kistnah, in
the road from Madras to Hydrabad. In Montresor's map there are a number of places round Timerycotta; but they have no connection with any other known place. Capt. Davis, in his account of the places in and about the Guntoor circar, says, that Timerycotta is 40 cosses west from Guntoor fort: and Guntoor is placed by the Malabar map nine cosses from Sattinagram; a place on the south bank of the Kistnah, opposite Bezoara; a point ascertained by Major Stevens. The bearing of Guntoor from Sattinagram, we can only infer, from its lying in the direct road to Ongole, to be about SW: but it is strongly corroborated by Montresor's map, which gives the distance between Guntoor and Siccacollum (another fixed point on the Kistnah), at about 251 G. miles. Timerycotta, then, is placed according to these data, in respect of longitude: and is 89 G. miles to the westward of Siccacollum; or 64 from Guntoor, which answers to 40 Carnatic cosses. With respect to its parallel, the Malabar map gives only a circuitous route of 49 cosses to it from Ongole. Mr. Montresor's map makes the distance to be 66 G. miles from Ongole; and the bearing about NW by N: but, as I said before, the connection between these places is imperfect, in his map. Capt. Davis's map (or rather sketch) has it at 57. Again, Montresor makes Guntoor and Timerycotta, nearly under the same parallel, which would reduce the distance to 59. I have allowed 602: and have been guided principally by the computed distances in the Malabar map, applied to Capt. Davis's bearings, in his circuitous route from Ongole to Timerycotta: and this position agrees nearly with Montresor's idea.
Montresor's map, as is said before, contains many positions round Timerycotta, to the extent of 20 or 30 miles: among others, Currumpoody, Patack, Pongallah, Pulredygur, and Masherlaw, or Macherla. This last place, together with Combam and Doupad, from other authorities, helps me to trace out the route of Tavernier from Gandicotta to the Kistnah, in his way to Golconda, in 1652. Combam, or Commum, is the same with his Kaman, said