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Pondicherry was, perhaps, the finest city in India. It extended along the sea coast about a mile and a quarter, and was about three quarters of a mile in breadth: was well built, and contained many public buildings; and a citadel, then the best of its kind in India, but of too contracted dimensions. This fine city was first taken by the English, in 1761; and was immediately razed to the ground, in retaliation of M. Lally’s conduct towards the fortifications and buildings of Fort St. David, in 1758. This proceeding of M. Lally, was agreeable to a system adopted by the French East-India Company in Europe: and which had its foundation in commercial jealousy.* However, the consequent destruction of the French settlement of Chandernagore, might have glutted our revenge for the loss of Fort St. David : and we should have been content with dismantling Pondicherry. The French have also factories at Cuddalore, and at Carrical: the former within sight of Pondicherry: the latter in the Tanjore country. Cuddalore is naturally a very strong situation : and would have been the most commodious, perhaps, for the chief British settlement; since the security of Tanjore, and the conveniency of supplies from it, must ever be a capital object. Besides, as the SW monsoon is the season of naval warfare, Pondicherry has the advantage of being to windward of Madras; and the French, at the same instant, accomplish the double purpose of keeping to windward, and of protecting their capital settlement: and receive assistance from it in return. The British fleet, in order to watch the enemy, retires 100 miles from their principal settlement; and receives only a precarious assistance from the shore: that is, from Cuddalore, or its neighbourhood, their usual station.

The Dutch possess on this coast the towns of Pullicate, Sadras, and Portonovo; each of which has a small fort to protect it, against

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• If we are to judge of the degree of turpitude of a crime, by the mode of punishing it, rivalship in commerce should be one of the most heinous crimes in nature: for nothing less than the most flagitious, and universal criminality, can authorize the destruction of the habitations, and the consequent dispersion of the inhabitants, of a great city. The fate of Rome might be involved in the existence of Carthage: but the question here, was only which of the two parties should purchase callicoes at the cheapest rate, or sell them at the dearest.

the consequences of any desultory irruption, or the quarrels of petty chiefs: but which could make no stand against a regular army. The Danes have also a settlement of the same kind, at Tranquebar, within the confines of Tanjore.

For an account of the cities of Tritchinopoly, Tanjore, Madura, and the stupendous pagodas of Seringham, &c. I shall refer the reader to Mr. Orme's elegant and faithful History of the Military Transactions of the British Nation in Hindoostan.

When we turn to the north of the parallel of Madras, the subject appears to be more barren of matter, of every kind, than in the south: and among the little that does appear, there is a still smaller proportion of actual survey. The jaghire map, and the marches surveyed by Mr. Pringle, do not extend far to the north of Madras. There is indeed, Col. Pearse's line of march, that

way:

but it furnishes only an outline; for it never deviates far from the coast. The matter before us, is confined chiefly to the eastern half of the peninsula; and the farther we recede, from the coast, the more scanty are the materials, and the less to be depended on.

The authorities for the course of the Kistnah river, which bounds on the north, the tract which is the subject of this Section, will be found at the end of the fourth Section: and I shall now proceed to give an account of the authorities on which the remaining primary stations, between the parallel of Madras, and the Kistnah, are founded.

On Dalmacherry and Gooty, depend the whole course of the Pennar river, from its source to Cuddapa; together with all its branches, and the different positions near them; such as Cuddapa, Tripetty, Chandeghere (or Kandeghere), and Calastri.

There is a diversity of opinion concerning the position of Dalmacherry, as there must ever be, when the distance and bearing of a place, have not been mathematically ascertained. A curious MS. communicated by my friend General Caillaud, entitled, “ An Acos count of the Passes between the parallels of Udegbery and Sautgud,

and from which I have received great assistance, has the distances in computed miles from one pass to another, and oftentimes from some distant capital place also; but without bearings. This MS. gives the distance of Dalmacherry, at 75 British miles of road distance, or about 56 G. miles of horizontal distance, from Arcot. Montresor's map gives 64, and Mr. Sulivan's 611. Montresor, also, places it 471, in a NNE direction from Cudapanattum; and Mr. Sulivan 47. I have placed it 562 from Arcot, in a NNW direction; which makes the interval between it, and Cudapanattum, 461: and its latitude is 13° 43' 30". There are three important passes leading from this place, into the Mysore and Cuddapah countries: and here it was that Doast Ally, the Nabob of Arcot, was surprised and defeated by the Mahrattas, in 1740.

Gooty or Gutti, is a strong fortress on a hill, beyond the river Pennar,* and towards Adoni; and formerly the seat of government of Morari Row, a Mahratta prince. This place, together with the course of the Pennar, is found in Montresor's map; which contains more particulars in this part of it, than

any

other I have seen. But a difficulty arose in adjusting the position of Gooty, in my map; because the distance between Dalmacherry and ChinnaBalabaram is much less in it (13 miles) than in Montresor's; and Gooty appears to be ascertained by two lines, drawn from those places: so that either the bearings, or the distances, must be rejected. I thought it the safest way to adhere to the distances: as it is probable they might have more weight, than the bearings had, with Mr. Montresor, who adjusted this circuitous route, between Arcot and the head of the Pennar. His scale gives 112,2 G. miles, on a bearing of N 3 E, from Chinna-Balabaram to Gooty; and 118,5, N 43° 45' W, from Dalmacherry to the same place. The intersection of the bearings (which make an angle of about 40°) would place Gooty in lat. 14° 58': and that of the distances, in

inap

• Or Pen-aur. I believe the term aur, for river, which prevails generally throughout the Carnatic, is not found any further to the north than Nellore.

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15° 15°; and nearly in the meridian of Chinna-Balabaram. I have preferred the latter, for the reason abovementioned.

The inferior branches of the Pennar are taken from D'Anville's map

of

1752: but Tademeri, Anantpour, &c. are from the Universal History. Gandicotta, on the south bank of the Pennar, is remarkable both as a strong fortress, and for having a diamond mine near it: a particular account of it, will be found in Tavernier. Penuconda, a considerable place near the Pennar river, is said to be 20 leagues N E of Sirpy, and 20 NNW of Chinna-Balabaram. This account, also, is in the Modern Universal History. Cæsar Frederick mentions it as the retreat of the King of Bisnagur (or Narsinga), 8 days journey from Bisnagur.

The Pennar river, after springing from the neighbourhood of the Balabarams, runs directly northward, until it approaches Gooty ; and then takes a S E course by Gandicotta and Cuddapah : after which it changes to the east, and reaches the sea at Gangapatnam, after passing the fort of Nellore. The MS. account of the passes, remarks that this river is 300 yards wide at Sami-Issuram, about 70 miles from the sea; although it is confined in its course, by hills, on both sides.

It has been observed in the first Section, that Capt. Ritchie's chart of the coast of Coromandel, made the point at the Pennar river, project too far out. I find by a reference to 6 different MS. and printed maps of this part, that the distance of the sea from Nellore, is not represented in any of them, at more than 131 G. miles, and most of them allow only 12. And although I have allowed 16, it comes considerably within Mr. Ritchie's account.

Cuddapah is determined by the map of the Pennar river: and the construction agrees with its reputed distance from Arcot in a Malabar map; or rather a map drawn by a native of the Carnatic. It is there stated at 60 сosses; which on the scale adopted for the Carnatic (in page 5), and which allows only 371 cosses to a degree, will correspond with the 96 G. miles, arising on the construction.

Tripetty and Chandeghere (or Kandegheri), the first, a famous place of Hindoo worship; and the latter, the site of the capital of the ancient kingdom of Narsinga, are placed with reference to Dal

macherry, by Montresor's map; and by the MS. account of the : passes. Kandegheri is there said to be 22 B. miles (road measure)

from Dalmacherry, bearing about ENE; and Tripetty is 3 miles S E from Kandegheri. I have placed Tripetty accordingly: and it stands in the map 53.1 G. miles, nearly north, from Arcot; and about 66, nearly N W by W, from Madras. Mr. Orme supposed it to be 50 miles N E of Arcot: and the Universal History says it is 22 leagues WNW from Madras. Calastri appears also in the

map

of Montresor. There is also a route of General Caillaud's from Polypet to Udegheri, and Nellore, passing through Calastri. I have endeavoured to fix the

position of Calastri, by these joint authorities; and have placed it 15 G. miles ENE from Tripetty; and 61 from Arcot: but I have my doubts concerning the accuracy of its position. .

Sami-Issuram pafs, on the Pennar river, is reckoned in the MS. of the passes, 55 B. miles, or 44 G. miles horizontal distance, west from Nellore; and this position is corroborated by Montresor's map (as far as the apparent rudeness of his materials for this part, may be said to confirm any position), and I have placed it accordingly. It comes within about 15 G. miles, or 9. cosses of Cuddapah; which bears from it WSW.

Udegherri and Sangam, two places in General Caillaud's route, are corrected by Col. Pearse's position of Nellore; and by the relative positions of Sydaporum and Nellore, in a French copy of M. Bussy's marches: Sydaporuin being also a position in Mr. Caillaud's route. I am conscious how incomplete the northern part of the Carnatic is, in comparison with the southern part: but all my inquiries have produced nothing satisfactory, on the NW of Polipet. Had the route of General Caillaud been'measured, it would have produced several primary stations : but as

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