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assistance, allows only 43 G. miles: but the more modern maps, come nearer to my idea ; Wersebe reckoning the distance 55, and Mr. Sulivan's
This station determines the breadth of the southern Carnatic; and also all the positions between Tritchinopoly and Velore. It will follow, also, that Tiagar, from whence the bearings of Volconda and Trinomaly were taken; as well as Volconda itself; must have an immediate dependence on Trinomaly. The position of Volconda, in respect of Tritchinopoly, would have been a desirable thing, in order to find how it agreed with the position deduced from Trinomaly; but this I could get no good authority for: and Mr. Pringle's bearing ought to have more weight than mere opinions. I have given the different accounts in a note, but without admitting them as authority.* M. D'Anville's, however, agrees with mine. Baron Wersebe's route, obligingly communicated by the Hon. Col. Cathcart (his Majesty's Quarter-master General in India), did not appear until the map was engraved. If Wersebe is right, I must have mistaken the position of Volconda; and placed it 7 miles S E by E of its true position. But Mr. Dalrymple, also, took the angles on Tiagar hill, and made the angle of Trinomalee and Volconda, the same as Mr. Pringle did, to three minutes of a degree.
Gingee is placed 30, and 32; G. miles from Pondicherry in two French MS. maps; and 364 in Wersebe's: one might expect that the French knew its position well. I have placed it 33 from Pondicherry; and 23 from Trinomaly.
The rest of the positions in the south Carnatic, as well as the courses of the rivers, and direction of the first ridge of hills, are taken chiefly from the three MS. maps beforementioned (viz.) D'Anville's, the old French MS. map; and Wersebe’s: and some
few particulars are from an engraved French map of 1771; whose principal merit is confined to the southern part of the Carnatic.
Carnatic-Gur, and Doby-Gur, two fortresses of note, in the ridge of hills on the west of Arnee, have never been taken notice of in any former printed map.
The latter is determined, as to distance from Velore, by a measured route of Mr. Pringle’s: and the former had its bearing taken at Velore, and is known to bear about N by W, three miles distant from the latter: of course, two sides and an angle are given; and the two places mutually assist in determining each other's position.
The Coleroone and Cauvery rivers, with their branches, below Caroor, are taken from the maps of Wersebe and Kelly; collated with the old French map. Wersebe's map of Tanjore, contains more particulars than any other that I have seen; especially in the northern part. And for the southern parts, I had some assistance from the map of Mr. Sulivan.
More particulars will be found in the Marawar and Madura countries, in this map, than in any former one that has been published. After the great roads specified in the discussion of Kelly's map,
&c. most of the new matter is from Mr. Dalrymple's collection; and the rest from Wersebe and Sulivan. The almost incredible number of forts and fortresses of various kinds in the Carnatic, occasion a greater number of interesting positions within the same space, thanin most other countries. Villages, and even towns, in open countries, are but of a day, compared with fortresses; especially when they derive any portion of strength from their situation: a very common case here. Public monuments, too, the unequivocal mark of civilization and opulence, are more common here, than in the northern parts of India.
. Madura and Tinevelly are chiefly from Sir J. Call's old many additions from Kelly and Wersebe. The valley of Ootampaliam, inclosed between the branches of the Gauts, is a very recent acquisition to geography. Nor is this the only new matter
afforded us by Col. Fullarton's march (during the late war) into the southern provinces; the geography of which now wears an entire new face. The intention of this expedition was, to open a communication between the two coasts of Coromandel and Malabar; and at the same time to deprive Hyder Ally of the use of the valuable province of Coimbettore: and, if necessary, to open a ready way into that of Mysore. We learn from him, what will appear a new fact to most readers, that of there being a break in the continuity of the ridge of mountains named the Gauts, opposite to Paniany. Governor Hornby, it seems, was apprized of this circumstance; and probably it was formerly known in Europe, though now forgotten. This break is about 16 miles wide, and appears to border on what D'Anville calls Annamally, or the elephant mountains, and is occupied chiefly by a forest of timber trees, which has the fort of Annamally on the east, and Palicaudcherry on the west. - The valley or opening extends 14 or 15 miles between the termination of the northern Gauts, and the commencement of the southern ones; before it opens finally into the low country on the Malabar coast. It is well known that ships which navigate the Malabar coast, during the N E monsoon, commonly experience a stronger gale in the neighbourhood of Paniany, than elsewhere; and I am of opinion that this opening in the Gauts, is a very sufficient cause for such an effect. I have been told also, that the lower part of the Coimbettore country, partakes of the rainy, or SW monsoon of the Malabar coast: which may certainly be referred to the same
The river of Paniany takes its course from the Coimbettore country, through this opening; and is said to be navigable in the rainy season, for small boats, to the foot of the Gauts; which is a circumstance worthy of being known, and which I was ignorant of, until I read the Life of Hyder Ally, published in France, in 1784. This circumstance, together with the inundated state of the country at that season, may serve to show, that the country
west of the Gauts, has no great declivity, in a course of near 60 miles.
The Paniany river, as well as that of Daraporum, has its source from an elevated plain, of about 60 miles in extent; and which stretches itself across the eastern mouth of the gap or valley, before spoken of. This plain rises suddenly from the level of the surrounding country, like a vast terrace; and the forest bounds it on the west. There are examples of the same kind of elevated plains in Bengal; and in the Bundela country, south of the Ganges, near Soohagee Gaut.
The common boundaries of the Carnatic, and of Mysore, are tolerably well ascertained in the southern provinces ;* and an approximation towards the truth, is made, in those of the Marawars and Tanjore; but on the north of the Cauvery, I believe the boundaries are very ill defined, even by the governing powers themselves; except in particular places.
On the west of the Gauts, and between those mountains and the lakes of Cochin and Travancore, there is nothing new. The country is chiefly one vast forest: and of course, scarcely inhabited, or known, as to particulars.
Terriore, or Tarriore, a fort possessed by a rajah of some note, on the north side of the Cauvery, and at the foot of the first ridge of hills; has its position from the authority of the MS. maps abovementioned. They differ, in giving its distance from Tritchinopoly, from 22 to 254 G. miles: and from Ootatore, from 16 to 175
Attore, a considerable post on the west of Tiagar, I found some difficulty in placing, from the discordancy of the different accounts: and indeed the whole tract beyond the first ridge of mountains beyond the Carnatic, is very vaguely described, both in point of
* Meaning those on the south of the Cauvery river. And the countries between the Cauvery and Guntour, are here named The Carnatic, in a particular sense: and this is again subdivided into N and S, as the parts respect Madras,
particulars, and of geometrical exactness. With respect to Attore, which is the centre of several roads described in the
I have placed it chiefly on the authority of Mr. Sulivan's map; as it corresponds with the bearing of the mouth of the pass from Tiagar; as reported by Mr. Pringle. That bearing was W 19° U'S; and in Mr. Sulivan's map, it stands N 38 W, distant 281 G. miles from Volconda. It is placed in the map N 39 W, 281 miles: 321 from Darempoury; and 34 from Salem, or Sailum.*
A route of Baron Wersebe's, from Tritchinopoly to Tiagar; communicated by my friend Col. Cathcart, came to hand after the map was engraved; and therefore too late to enable me to correct Ootatore; whose position, by that gentleman's account, is more northwardly, in respect of Tritchinopoly, than I have placed it. The route in question was not measured; but it being very straight, there could be no difficulty in ascertaining the true bearing of it.
The principal settlements and commercial factories of the Europeans, in the peninsula, are all situated along the coast of the south Carnatic; or, as it is usually termed, the coast of Coromandel. Madras we have already spoken of: the English possess also the fortress and city of Negapatam, situated on the coast of Tanjore; taken from the Dutch in the late war. It is a neat city, and a place of considerable trade: but more valuable from its local position.
Pondicherry is the principal settlement of the French in the Indian seas. Its general position has been discussed in page 13; and with respect to Madras, it lies to the south, distant 100 road miles; and at the mouth of the Gingee river. It was first settled by the French in 1674; and was then included in the rajahship of Gingee, subject to the King of Narsinga. Previous to the war of 1756,
* As it may assist some other person, who may undertake to correct this geography, I have inserted the following particulars, collected from different authorities: Mr. Sulivan's map places Attore, S 40° 30 W, 31 G. miles from Darempoury; and E 10° 20' N, 291 from Salem. D'Anville's map of positions, N 37° 40' W, 241 from Volconda. And Montresor, E 42° 50'S, 18 from Darempoury,