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than most people can easily conceive: and, I flatter myself, it will be soon adopted.
Agimere, Ajmere, or Azmere, is the primary point on which the geography of the N W part of the tract in question, rests; and is determined by the estimated distances from Agra and Burhanpour. An itinerary kept by John Steel, reckons 119 cosses between Agra and Agimere: and Tavernier, who left Agimere to the north, in his way
from Amedabad, reckoned 100 cosses from Bandersandry to Agra; and Bandersandry being 14 from Agimere, by Steels account, we may take 114 for the whole distance, from Agra to Agimere. A map of Malwa and its neighbourhood, communicated by Mr. Bensley, places Agimere 180 G. miles to the west of Gwalior; and another map, communicated by Mr. Hastings, gives the same distance. By the construction, founded on Mr. Steel's 119 cosses from Agra, and which produce 1721 G. miles, Agimere is found to be 102 miles short of the distance from Gwalior, in the above maps.
The parallel of Agimere, is determined by Sir Thomas Roe’s computation of the distance from Burhanpour to Agimere, through Mundu and Cheitore; and that is 222 cosses, or 318 G. miles: and the intersection of the two distances from Burhanpour and Agra, happens in lat. 26° 35', lon. 75° 20'. This is the position of Agimere in the map: no great accuracy, however, with respect to its parallel, can be expected, where the authority is nothing more than a single line of distance, and that a very long one. The Ayin Acbaree is totally silent concerning its latitude and longitude. Col. Call, in a map of his, communicated by Mr. Hastings, places it in the parallel I have assigned to it; and allows it to be distant from Burhanpour, 307 G. miles, and 192} from Agra; on what authority, I know not. Thevenot gives its latitude at 261.
Agimere was the capital of the soubah of the same name, in Acbar's division of the empire, and is probably the Gagasmira of Ptolemy. It is built at the foot of a very high mountain ; on the
top of which, is a fortress of very great strength. It is about 230 miles by the road, from Agra, and yet the famous Emperor Acbar, made a pilgrimage on foot, to the tomb of a saint, there; to implore the divine blessing on his family, which at that time consisted only of daughters; but after this pilgrimage, he had three sons added to it. Jehanguire, his son and successor, occasionally kept his court here; and this occasioned the visits of Sir Thomas Roe to this place; as well as to Cheitore and Mundu, which lay in the way to it, from Surat.
Ougein can hardly be regarded as a primary station, as it effects the position of one place only; that is, Mundu.
It is placed on the authority of a route traced by Capt. Reynolds, who accompanied Sir Charles Malet, on an embassy from Bombay to Delhi, in 1784. Not knowing how far the distances were ascertained with precision, in this route, or whether the latitude of Ougein was, or was not taken, by Capt. Reynolds; I could only apportion the positions in the route, and Ougein amongst the rest, along the interval on my map, between Brodera, in Guzerat, and Budderwas, which occurs in Mr. Smith's line between Narwah and Seronge. It happens that the interval, differs only one mile from the distance, on the route: and Ougein, placed after the manner just described, will be in lat. 23° 14'; lon. 75° 49'.
This survey of Capt. Reynolds, came to hand long after the construction of the map of Hindoostan, in 1788; in which Ougein was placed in point of longitude, on the reports of the computed distances from Brodera and Bopaltol: and in parallel, by the computed distance from Mundu, and Burhanpour. Its position was then, lat. 23° 26'; lon. 75° 56': not very wide of the present one, considering the nature of the authorities. Amongst the lines of distance, was one from Brodera, taken from a book of routes, which was obligingly communicated by Capt. Kirkpatrick; and, together with some others, as obligingly translated from the Persian, for me, by Mr. David Anderson; whose services on the memorable occasion
of negociating the Mahratta peace, in 1782, and 1783, claim the united acknowledgments of Great Britain and Hindoostan. This route allowed 108 cosses between Brodera and Ougein; which distance is actually 109 by Capt. Reynolds's apportioned interval; at 42 to a degree. But if we take the distance on the
between Bopal and Brodera, through Ougein, which occasions a considerable bend in the line, it will be found to be 247 G. miles: and the computation of cosses being 153 in Col. Camac's tables, the proportion will be about 37 to a degree; although the scale adopted for Malwa (in page 5), is 35 to a degree.
Capt. Reynolds's route must be regarded as a very capital one; being through a tract, which was heretofore the most vacant part of the map: and of which our general knowledge was so limited, that we supposed the courses of its rivers, to be to the south, and into the Nerbuddah; when, in fact, they were to the north, and into the Jumnah river. It settled also the position of Dhar, and of several other places, before unknown to us.
Mundu is placed in Capt. Reynolds's map, at 49 G. miles to the SW of Ougein: by D’Anville, 311 SSW: and in a map of Col. Muir's, S Į W, 36. Sir Thomas Roe, who passed through it, in his
way from Burhanpour to Cheitore, reckoned it 66 cosses from Burhanpour, equal to 94į G. miles. It is unlucky that the distance should be omitted in the march of Jehanguire, sent me by Capt. Kirkpatrick. There can be no doubt but that Mundu is more distant from Ougein, than either the map of D'Anville, or of Muir allows; but whether Capt. Reynolds’s intelligence was accurate, I have no means of knowing. As far as I can collect from the march of Jehanguire, the distance cannot be more than 20 Acbaree cofses; say 39 G. miles Nalcheh is said to be 6 cosses from Hasilpour: and the emperor appears to have made one stage from Dowlatabad, which is stated to be 11 or 12 cosses from Ougein: and allowing for the stage to Hasilpour 4, the total will be about 22: but as Hasilpour was evidently out of the road from
Ougein to Mundu, 20 cosses may possibly be a sufficient allowance for the direct distance. Nalcheh, is situated in the suburbs, or at the foot of the hill of, Mundu.
The cities of Ougein and Mundu are both of great antiquity. The former appears evidently both as to name and position, in the Periplus of the Erythrean sea, as well as in Ptolemy, under the name of Ozene. When the Ayin Acbaree was written, more than two centuries ago, Mundu (or Mundoo), was the capital of Malwa, and is described as a prodigious city, of 12 cosses, or 22 miles in circuit; and containing many monuments of ancient magnificence: but when it was visited by Sir Thomas Roe, in 1615, it was then fallen much to decay. It occupied the top of a very large and high mountain: few cities were ever placed in a bolder situation.
Ougein is the present capital of Madajee Sindia; who, with Tuckajee Holkar, possesses the principal part of Malwa. Holkar’s capital is at Indore, or Endore, a modern city, which is said to lie about 20 cosses from Ougein, south, or south-eastwards. This is a part of Hindoostan, concerning which, we are but slightly informed; and of which, Sindia wished to keep us in ignorance: for it is said, he expressed a disapprobation of the brigade from Guzerat, taking its route through Ougein, in its way to the Bengal provinces: so that the detachment returned, nearly by the same road as it went, as far as Sirong.
Having now discussed the manner of establishing the primary stations, or those principal points, on which the general construction of the geography of the tract under consideration, depends; I shall proceed to give the detail of the manner, in which the intermediate spaces were filled up: but so great a variety of matter offers, that I hardly know where to begin; nor is it a point of much consequence: however, to preserve as much regularity as the subject is capable of, I shall begin on the western side, near Bombay; then go round by the north and east; and finish in the south.
When the map was constructed, which was previous to the arrival of any of Capt. Reynolds's inland surveys; I formed the geography of the tract between Bombay, Surat, and Poonah, from the best materials that I could procure: some of them, perhaps, of an indifferent kind; either from the want of leisure, or opportunity, in the collectors; or through apprehensions of raising dangerous suspicions in the minds of those, in whose power they were, at the time the observations were made. Such is the
map of the road from Poonah to Nussergur (or Nusseratpour) and round to Soangur, which was described by Messieurs Farmer and Stewart, during the time they remained as hostages in the Mahratta camp; the particulars of which were obligingly communicated to me by Mr. Farmer. This map ascertains the situations of Casserbarry and Coondabarry Gauts; and, in particular, that of the city of Amednagur, once the capital of the soubah of the same name; but now better known by that of Dowlatabad. This city, which was the residence of the Emperor Aurungzebe, during his conquest of the Deccan and Carnatic, has generally been placed 50
miles to the south-east of its true position.
The road from Bombay to Poonah, is taken from a MS. map, made during the unfortunate compaign of 1778-9: collated with Mr. Smith's, and General Goddard's. And all the particulars along the coast, between Bombay and Surat, are also taken from General Goddard's map.
The road from Nimderrah Gaut to Aurungabad, and back to Bahbelgong, and thence by Chandor and Saler-Mouler, to Noopour; is from M. Anquetil du Perron. Chandor occurs in Mr. Smith's route; as well as Unkei-Tenki, which we meet with in Tavernier, and which enables us to join the routes together.
Such was the nature of the materials on which the ground-work of this part of the map was originally formed: but I have since introduced the routes of Capt. Reynolds, as far as it was possible to assimilate the new matter with the old; and accordingly, a most in