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Various prepositions are compound; as, bagved, behind.

henved, towards. foran, before.

indtil, into.


eller, or,

The principal conjunctions are :og, and,

hvis, if, in case. samt, together with, enten, either, fordi, because. både, both,

ti, because. men, but,

siden, da, since, when. endog, even,

at, that,

at ikke, lest. end, than, (used in the comparison of adjectives).

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Interjections are, (1) imitative sounds, expressive of impressions they are intended to convey; as, Puf! knak! top! (2) Natural expletives; as, Ah! Ak! O! Fy! (3) The imperatives of verbs; as, velkommen! 'be welcome;' bort ! 'go away. (4) Vitiated forms of invocation; as, Hillemænd ! (0, hellige Mænd !) “Oh! blessed Saints;" Såmænd ! (sandt som det hellige Evangelium, hjælpe mig de hellige Mænd !) “As true as holy Gospel,

“ so help me the Blessed Saints !”







THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. (Ubestemte Kendeord.) The earlier writings of the Old Northern afford no evidence of the use of an Indefinite Article, which was first represented by the pronouns einn, 'one;' einnhver, each one;' and nökkurr, 'some one.' From the first of these bas been derived the present Dano-Norwegian article, en, et, 'a,''an,' which is in point of fact an unaccentuated modification of the existing pronoun en, one, and the numeral

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en, et, 'one.'

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The indefinite article precedes the noun, or the adjective qualifying the letter, as en Mand, en god Mand, excepting in cases where it is used with the adjectives slig, sådan, mangen; or when the adjective to which it refers is preceded by , hvor, altfor, for, and the sentence has an interjectional sense, under which conditions it stands between the adjective and noun ; as, slig en Mand, such a man ! mangt et Barn! 'many a child ;' vranten en Pige! “such a cross girl ! hvor dejligt et Træ ! 'what a lovely tree !' for kort en Sang ! 'too short a song!'


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The indefinite article must be repeated after og, even where the nouns, which it enumerates, are of the same gender; as, en Mand og en Kone, 'a man and a woman.'

This article is not used to designate a rank, or calling, or a distinctive qualification; as, Er han Grev eller Baron ? “Is he (a) Count or (a) Baron ?Han er Læge, “He is (a) doctor;" Hun er Enke, "She is (a) widow;" Han er Protestant, "He is (a) Protestant."

The indefinite article may be used with a plural to express an indefinite quantity in the sense of "about,"

nearly;" as, jeg bliver her En tre, fire Uger, “I shall stay here about three or four weeks."

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THE DEFINITE ARTICLES. (De bestemte Kendeord.) The agglutination with the noun of the affix-article en or n (m.f.), et or + (n.), ene or ne (pl.), which constitutes the most striking characteristic of the Scandinavian tongues, has been derived from the Old Northern, although it does not occur in Old Gothic. It is met with, however, under a modified form in Roumanian and Bulgarian, as well as in Albanian, which must be regarded as more original in structure than either of the former.

In the most ancient Icelandic writings the definite nounarticle is not to be found, but it would appear that the demonstrative pronoun hinn (m.), hin (f.), hitt (n.), 'that,' was early used after the noun to define the latter, as is still frequently done by Norwegians in the case of the pronouns min, din, sin ; as, Fader min, 'father mine;' Broder din, brother thine ;' &c. The Danes and Norwegians, following

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the rule of the ancient mother-tongue, originally wrote Mand hin, 'man that;' Hus hit, house that;' Börn hine, children those.' And as in Icelandic these demonstrative pronouns, when appended to a noun to give it its definite inflected form, lost the h, and appeared as the affixes inn (m.), in (f.), itt (n.), &c., so in Danish the pronoun has become converted into en or n (m. f.), et or t (n.), &c., and now constitutes the simple noun-article. The intermediate stage between the older Mand hin, and the modern Manden, 'the man,' was Mandhen.

In their present form these affixes have the precise meaning of the definite article “ the,” but can only be thus used when the noun is not qualified by an adjective; as, Gutten er min Broder, The boy is my brother;" Huset er hans Kones, “The house is his wife's;" Börnene lege i Haven med Hunden, " The children are playing in the garden with the dog." The independent adjective-article is :den, c. g.

det, n. de, pl. of both genders. This article is the unaccentuated representative of the demonstrative pronoun den, dēt, dē, derived, like the affix noun-form of the article, from the Old Northern demonstrative pronoun hinn (m.), hin (f.), hitt (n.), hinir (pl. m.), hinar (pl. f.), hin (pl. n.), 'that.'

It must directly precede the adjective which qualifies the noun; as, den lange Gut, ‘the tall boy;' det höje Tre, 'the high tree;' de små Börn, 'the little children.'

The independent adjective-article may be used in the

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place of the noun-affixes when special emphasis, or a distinct meaning is to be given to the word; as, Aldrig lader den Mand sine Börn i Fred ! “The man never leaves his children in peace !” Siger den Soldat at jeg er döv ? “Does the soldier really say that I am deaf?” In such cases, however, den may be considered to be used more in the sense of a demonstrative pronoun than a mere article, although still retaining its unaccented tone.

The position of the noun in a simple sentence is the same as in English. The subject precedes, and the object follows, the verb; as, Manden slå Drengen, " The man beat the boy."

, In a secondary part of a sentence subject to, or condi. tional on, the preceding part, and in interrogations, the noun, with its article or pronoun, and its qualifying adjective, is invariably placed after the verb; as, hvis Læreren var her, vovede disse unartige Drenge sig ikke at göre sådant et spektakel, “If the master were here those naughty boys would not dare to make so much noise." Går De ikke i Haven i Dag? “Are you not going into the garden to-day?"

The genitive precedes the subject or the object to which it refers; as, Den gode Mands små Börn, The good man's little children.” For Guds skyld, "For God's sake.”

Where several words are used to indicate the noun standing in the genitive, the last only takes 8, or es ; as, Victoria, Dronning af Englands Rige, The dominions of Victoria, Queen of England.”

The genitive may be used where a comparison between the qualities of two persons or things is made, without repeating the word designating the quality; as, Guldets

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