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The reflective pronoun sig, 'self,' is used in both genders for the third person singular.

In common parlance the third person plural de, written with a capital D, (De), is employed in the sense of you,' when addressing another individual, excepting in cases of near relationship, or close intimacy, when Du, 'thou,' is used, as among Germans.


Min, mit, my; din, dit, thy; sin, sit, his, hers, its ;

vor, vort, our; jer, jert, your.

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Mine, my; dine, thy; sine, his, hers, its ; vore, our;

jere, your.

Sin, sit, sine are used exclusively as subjective reflexpossessive pronouns, whilst hans, hendes are used in an objective sense; as, Hun tog sin Hat, she took her (own) hat;' han tog HANS Hat, he took his (another man's) hat.'

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1. Som, 'who,' 'whom,' is used for both genders and numbers, and indifferently in the nominative and accusative; as, Konen som mig, 'the woman who saw me;' Konen som jeg , 'the woman whom I saw.'

2. Der, 'who,''that,' is used for both genders and numbers, but only in the nominative; as, Manden der gik ud, 'the man who went out.'

3. Hvem, 'whom,' is used incorrectly in the nominative instead of hvo,' who,' and should be employed only in the objective; hvis, 'whose,' is used only in the genitive.

4. Hvad, 'what,' is used only in the neuter singular.

5. Hvilken, hvilket, pl. hvilke, 'which. In the place of this pronoun, where an interrogative is required, the expression hvad for en (what for a) is often used ; as, Hvad for en Gut (Norweg.) mener de?

" What boy do you






Plural. al, alt,

all. anden, andet,

andre, other. ingen, intet,

ingen, mangen, mangt,

mange, many. nogen, noget,

nogle, some, some one. enhver, enhvert,

en, et,

one; people.
hinanden, each other.

hverandre, one another. Nogen and ingen correspond with some one, and no one ;' as, Er der Ingen i Huset? “Is there no one in the house?Jo, der er Nogen hjemme, “Yes, there is some one at home.

Mangen en, mangt et, many a one,' are used as in English, but are perhaps of more frequent occurrence in ordinary conversation. Nogle , pl., 'some few,' admits of being used as in English.


VERBS. (Udsagnsord.) Dano-Norwegian Verbs have three forms, the active, the passive, and the deponent.

The principal auxiliaries are at have, 'to have,' and at være, 'to be,' which are conjugated by the help of other auxiliaries, as, at skulle, shall;' at ville, 'will;' at måtte, may;' at kunne, 'can ;'-all of which are more or less defective. At blive, “to be,' 'to. remain,' and at , 'to

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get,' (to be under a necessity,) may be used as auxiliaries ; the former with the verb at være, 'to be,' in the conjugation of passive verbs, and the latter in the sense of 'may,''must,' in the conjugation of active verbs.

Present, at have, to have.


to be.
Past, at have haft, to have had.

at have været, to have been.
Future, at skulle have, to be obliged to have; (shall

at skulle være, to be obliged to be; (will, or
shall be).

Present, havende, having.

værende, being

haft, had.
været, been.


Present Tense.
jeg, du, han, hun, har, I, thou, etc., have, hast, has.

am, art, is.
vi, I, de, hare, we, etc., have.
» » ere,

Imperfect Past.
jeg, du, han, hun, havde, I, etc., had (in all persons).

tar, I, etc., was. vi, I, de, vare, we, ye, they, were

er ,

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Compound Tenses. jeg, du, han, hun, har haft, I, etc., have had.

været, I, etc., have been. vi, I, de, have, haft, we, etc., have had.

været, we, etc., have been. jeg, etc., skal, or vil have, I, etc., shall, or will, have.

skal, or vil være, shall, or will be. vi, etc., skulle, or ville have, we, etc., shall, or will have.

skulle, or ville være, shall, or will be.

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POTENTIAL. have, may have.

være, may be. (for all persons).


hao du, have thou. orer du, be thou.

haver I have ye. værer I, be ye. The other auxiliaries—some of which, as at blive, 'to be,''to remain ;' at , “to be constrained,''to get,' may be used in an independent form-are conjugated as follows: Infinitive.

Present Indicative.

Plur. at , to get,

jeg, etc., får vi, etc., . at blive, to be,


blive. at skulle, shall,


skulle. at ville, will,



. at kunne, can,



at måtte, may,

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