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PASSIVE OF THE CAUSAL FORM.

PASSIVE PRETERITE.

Sing. 1 p. kutinagit, I have caused to bring

PLUPERFECT.

Sing. 1 p. kutinagitta, I had been caused to bring

INDEFINITE.

Sing. 1 p. kutinagitra, I have been caused to bring

PRECATIVE MOOD.

Sing. 1 p. kutinagitnē, may I be caused to bring

PRESENT TENSE.

Sing. 1 p. kutinavagit, I am caused to bring

IMPERATIVE.

Sing. 2 p. kutina, be thou caused to bring

PARTICIPLE.

kutinak, kutinaka

INTENSIVE FORM. KUT(1)KATORRA, to bring forth (conjugated like kutina, the causal).

DESIDERATIVE FORM OF THE SIMPLE VERB.

KUTINIUNYU, to will bring (conjugated like a neuter verb).

PRETERITE.

Sing. 1 p. kutiniunyugit, I would bring

2 p. kutiniunyukti

3 p. kutiniunyuk Plur. 1 p. kutiniunyugiyut

2 p. kutiniunyuktip
3 p. kutiniunyup, kutiniunyuppi (a)

PLUPERFECT.

Sing. 1 p. kutiniunyugitta, I had had the intention to bring

INDEFINITE.

Sing. 1 p. kutiniunyugitra, I have had the intention to bring

PRECATIVE MOOD.

Sing. 1 p. kutiniunyugitnē, may I have the intention to bring

PRESENT.

Sing. 1 p. kutiniunuvagit, I will bring

IMPERATIVE. Sing. 2 p. kutiniunyu, will thou bring

DERIVATIVE FORM OF THE CATSAL.

KUTINANIUNYU, to have the intention to cause to bring.

RECIPROCAL FORM.

KUTIVANLU, to bring to each other (conjugated like a neuter verb).

PRETERITE.

Sing. 1 p. kutivanlugit, I brought another

2 p. kutivanlukti
3
p.

kutivanluk Plur. 1 p. kutivanlugiyut

2 p. kutivanluktip

.
3 p. kutivanlup

PLUPERFECT.

Sing. 1 p. kutivanlugitta, I had brought another

INDEFINITE.

Sing. 1 p. kutivanlugitra, I have brought another

PRECATIVE MOOD.

Sing. 1 p. kutivanlugitnē, may I bring another

PRESENT.

Sing. 1 p. kutivanluvagit, I bring another

IMPERATIVE.

Sing. 2 p. kutivanlu, bring another

RECIPROCAL FORM OF THE CAUSAL.

KUTINAVANLU, to cause to bring each other.

There are most certainly existing other forms, that are not transmitted to us by the texts.

The neuter verbs are conjugated as the passives.

Several verbs are irregular, and of another conjugation; for instance, gin, to be; nan, to say. gini, I am.

nangi, I say. ginta

nainta ginri

nanri giniyut ?

nangiyut gintip

naintip ginripi

nanripi

ginrik

There existed also a neuter form of the verb gin : ginnigit

ginnigiyut ginnikti

ginniktip

ginrip The substantive verb is da and du. Duva or dava, I was; dus or das, he was; duvan or davan, I am.

The Median language has a much greater affinity to the Tatar idioms than the Sumerian ;? but it forms a separate class together with the Susian. I have, for twenty years, paid attention to these most difficult texts, and there are a great number of passages now easily to be understood by the aid of our scanty Median knowledge. My explanations have been laid down in a paper addressed to the first Congress of Orientalists held at Paris (vol. ii. p. 179 ss.).

Unfortunately many Median important words, as the numerals, and

many substantive nouns, are only written in ideograms. The phonetic values of two or three only of these are known: these are unan, king; umman, house, family.

1

This is the true name of the original Anarian tongue. The false name of Accadian, for which no reason has ever been put forth, must be abandoned. The language of Accad is the Semitic Assyrian idiom. The proof of this scientific truth is to be found in my paper, Etudes Sumériennes, first article in the Journal Asiatique, Férrier, Mars, Arril

, 1875. The arguments I suggest in order to support this opinion are, I believe, irrefutable.

RESTORATION OF THE BEROSUS CANON

BY PROFESSOR JULIUS OPPERT.

I SHALL concisely unfold my discoveries in Babylonian chronology, which fix, in an undeniable way, and in accordance with the highly valuable statement made by Mr. George Smith, the commencement of the historical times of Babylon at 2517 B.C. The Chaldæans knew the period of 1805 years, or 22,325 synodical months, equal to 24,227 draconitic months, after which the eclipses return in the same order. This period is quoted in the texts of Sargon, who states its end in 712 B.c. Prof. Schrader, in his reply to my views, confessed this point to be unattackable.

The date of 2517 B.C. as the date of the Aryan conquest stated by Berosus is confirmed by the famous list of the same author, combined

a

1 The passage runs as follows:

ultu yume rukuti adi igidti Sin

inde a diebus remotis usque ad nodiperiodum Luni. This translation is supported by almost all Assyriologists, as MM. Menant, Lenormant, Delitzsch, Schrader, Eneberg, and other scholars. It agrees with the clause in the mutilated stele of Larnaca now at Berlin, which can be easily restored :

[ultu] yumē rukuti Sibit (mat) Assur
inde a diebus remotis fundationis Assyriae,
[adi muan] na

usque ad hunc annum. Traces of the an in the second line are still visible on the stone. The first passage is one of the most intelligible: ultu from, and adi until to, are the wellknown correlatives; igidti is expressed by I, as in the syllabaries; and Sin is written AN. SIS. KI, as in the Zürich bilingual tablet, and Norris's Dict. p. 938. No one has understood until now, the king Until, who Mr. Smith now finds in the clause where he formerly discovered Arabian tribes.

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with some valuable information given by Herodotus. The real figures of the Berosian dynastic canon are thus handed down in the Armenian text of Eusebius :Medes ...

234 years. Elamites

224 Chaldæans ...

458 Arabians

245 Semiramis

42 Assyrians

526 Duration of the Median Empire (Herod. i. 130) 228

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1957

These 1957 years, added to 560 B.C., the date of the end of the Median empire, will give exactly 2517 B.c. for the date of the Aryan invasion. The statement is corroborated by the cuneiform inscriptions. As the capture of Susa took place in 648 B.C., the capture of Babylon by the Elamites, and the accession of this dynasty 1635 years before, falls in the year 2283 B.C., which date, added to 234 of the first dynasty, equally leads us to 2517 B.C.

The canon of Berosus, restored only so far as it was applicable to Babylon, runs thus :

B.C.
Medians

2517–2283
Elamites

2283-2059 Chaldæans

2059-1601 Arabians

1601-1356 Semiramis

1356-1314 Assyrians ...

1314- 788 Phul, the Chaldæan

788— (?)

B.C.

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1 There is not a single number invented or changed. The corrupt Armenian text gives for the Median dynasty two numbers, 234 and 224; for the second, not named, the number is wanting in the text; but a marginal note gives 48. This 48 is only 2-24 misunderstood. The reign of Semiramis is not stated. All the ancient documents give 42 years. It is easy to change numbers, but more difficult to explain those which exist. The two numbers, 234 and 224, were believed to be identical, on account of their almost equal value. It is possible that the number 224, now well confirmed, was rejected by the compiler, on account of the curious coincidence that the first two dynasties according to this computation together lasted 458 years, which is the same number of years as the third dynasty itself lasted. But these coinci

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