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of sacred character, and were retained in later times, just as in Europe the old style of writing is preserved on architectural monuments of a later age. With all respect for the learning of those archæologists who unhesitatingly fix the date of any building in India by its architectural style, or by its sculptures and inscriptions, we sometimes wish that they might imbibe a little of that wholesome scepticism which Sanskrit scholars have acquired by sad experience. If, however, the date of the Bharahut ruins should prove beyond the reach of reasonable doubt, we should have in the sculptures and inscriptions there found a representation of what Buddhism really was in the third century B.c.

So much for the work of General Cunningham and his assistants; but their work did not stand alone. In October, 1871, the Duke of Argyll called the attention of the Bombay Government to the importance of the production of a complete survey of the rock temples of Western India, and after some correspondence Mr. Burgess, the editor of the Indian Antiquary, was appointed to conduct an archæological survey in that Presidency. He entered on his duties in January of this year, and in three months had returned to Bombay, bringing fifty-four photographs, between twenty-five and thirty inscriptions, about forty ground plans, sections, drawings of columns, etc., and forty sketches of sculptures. I understand that Mr. Burgess is at present engaged in drawing up a report upon these. If the results turn out satisfactory, as there is every reason to expect, I hope the Government of India may see its way to allotting more money than it has yet done to the investigation of the archæology of Western India by so active and competent an observer. Perhaps Mr. Burgess, who is in the room, will be prevailed on to address us to-day. These, gentlemen, are the most recent doings of our official archæologists in India, and I am convinced that with every decade we shall have a better and better report to give of the care which is being bestowed by the present rulers of India on the works of their predecessors. We are fond of denouncing ourselves for want of proper attention to these matters. There are few things that Englishmen like so little . as being denounced by other people, but there is nothing they like 50 much as denouncing themselves. Cool-headed observers, however,

. looking at the enormous amount of absolutely necessary work that had to be done before the first beginnings of a civilized polity were laid in India, which was rapidly going to utter ruin when we first grew strong there, will be inclined to condone our insufficient attention to the preservation and illustration of ancient monuments in the past, if we only now attend to them sufficiently; and having had the opportunity of seeing a good deal behind the scenes in matters Indian, I think I may say very positively that those who administer the Government of India consider themselves more and more in all things relating to science, art, and literature in India, as trustees, not only for their own countrymen and for India, but for the whole civilized world. That is a view which I strongly hold myself, and which, should circumstances again place me in an influential position in connexion with the Government of India, I shall always do what I can to carry into effect. I had hoped at one time that a building which should have contained the India Museum, the great India Library, and rooms for the Asiatic Society, might have risen at Westminster, as a fitting monument of the presence in the India Office of the Duke of Argyll, the one man of high scientific attainment whom the conflicting tides of English politics ever carried into the great place of Secretary of State for India. The fall, however, of the Gladstone Government swept the Duke of Argyll away from the India Office, just as the great deficit of about six millions which he found upon attaining to power—a deficit for which I ought in justice to mention, hard times, and not his predecessors, were responsiblehad under his auspices been filled. I trust that the realization of my hopes will be only deferred, and am well content that if the thing is done, the honour of doing it should belong to our successors in power.

I hope some of our visitors from the other side of the water have taken, or will take, an opportunity of visiting the India Museum. They will find it under the care of Dr. Forbes Watson and Dr. Birdwood, although in an inconvenient locality, extremely full of interest. Among other things their attention should be directed to the system by which Dr. Forbes Watson has tried to diffuse among our manufacturers a knowledge of the beautiful textile fabrics of India, so incomparably superior from an æsthetic point of view to anything which the looms of Western Europe have yet produced. Before concluding, I wish to mention to our foreign visitors the paper which is published by the India Office every year, giving

an account of the “Moral and Material Progress of India.' It is very little known upon the continent of Europe, and its wider diffusion would, I think, correct many errors about our doings and not doings in the East which are rather widely prevalent. It can be obtained through any respectable bookseller in London, and is extremely cheap.

Thanking you for the kindness with which you have listened to this address, I now declare the Section of Eastern Art and Archæology to be open.





In the following translations of the Nâsik Cave Inscriptions I have mainly followed Mr. West's excellent lithographs, given in vol. vü. of the Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic Society's Journal. Lieutenant Brett's copies, from which Dr. Stevenson translated them, were also consulted. But finding that neither collection was satisfactory in every respect, I visited the Caves myself about three weeks ago, and compared the copies with the originals. I found a difference in several cases. These have been indicated in their proper places. I was accompanied by my friend Mr. Âbâji Vishņu Kathavațe, himself a Sanskrit scholar, who was of much assistance to me. I have translated all the inscriptions with the exception of No. 23, which consists of a few small and incomplete lines. The numbers used are those of Mr. West's copies. The order in which I have arranged my translations is as follows:

1. Gautamiputra's Inscriptions, Nos. 26, and 25. 2. Ushavadâta's Inscriptions, Nos. 17, 19, 18, 16, and 14. 3. Inscriptions of private individuals containing the names of kings. 4. The rest.

No. 26.

१. सिद्धं रखो वासिठीपुतस सिरिपुडुमायिस समछरे एकुणविसे १९ गिह्मणपखे बितोये २ दिवसे तेरसे १३ राजरखो गोतमीपुतस हिमवतमेरु

२. मंदारपवतसमसारस असिकासकमुढकसुरठकुकुरापरतअनुपविदभाकरावतिराबस विञ्छावतपारिचातसह्यकएहगिरिमचसिरिटनमलयमहिंद

३. सेटगिरिचकेरपवतपतिस सवराजलोकमंडलपतिगहीतसासनस दिवसकर करविबोधितकमलविमलसदिसवदनस तिसमुदतोयपीतवाहनस पडिपुणचंदमंडलससिरीक

४. पियदसनस वरवारणविकमचारुविकमस भुजगपतिभोगपीनवारविपुलदीघसुंदरभुजस अभयोदकदानकिलिननिभयकरस अविपनमातुसुसुसकस सुविभततिवगदेसकालस

५. पोरजननिविसेससमसुखदुखस खतियदपमानमदनस सकयवनपल्हवनिसुदनस धमोपजितकरविनियोगकरस कितापराधेपि सतुजणे अपाणहिंसाचिस दिजावरकुटुंबविवध

६. नस खगारातवंसनिरवसेसकरस सातवाहनकुलयसपतिठापनकरस सवमंडलाभिवादितचरणस विनिवतितचातुवणसंकरस अनेकसमरावजितसतुसंघस अपराजितविजयपताकसतुजनदुपधसनीय.

७. पुरवरस कुलपुरिसपरंपरागतविपुलराजसदस आगमानं निलयस मपुरिसानं असयस सिरीस अधिठानस उपचारानं पभवस एककुस[ल]स एकधनुधरस एकसूरस एकबह्मणस राम

८. केसवाजुनभीमसेनतुलपराकमस [द] छणयनुसवसमाजकारकस णभागनहुसजनमेजयसकरययातिरामांबरीससमतेजस अपरिमितमखयमचितमभुतं पवनगरुडसिधयखरखसविजाधरभूतगंधवचारण

९. चंददिवाकरनखतगहविचिण समरसिरसि जितरिपुसंघस णगवरखधा गगनतलमभिविगाढस कुलविपुल[स] सिरिकरस सिरिसातकनिस मातुय महादेवीय गोतमीय वलसिरीय सचवचनदानखमाहिंसानिरताय तपदमनिय.

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