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as Sesamum Indicum, Lin., Hyperanthera morunga, Cardamomum, Amomum, Laurus cinnamomum, Valeriana Jatamonsi, Boswellia thurifera, Galbanum ammoniacum, Sagapenum assafætida, etc. He also used black and long pepper, ginger, cassia, spikenard, Calamus aromaticus, etc., which are all the products of India or neighbouring countries.

3. The internal evidence of the works of the School of Hippocrates proves them to have been compilations, derived in part from nations further advanced than the Greeks in the knowledge of particular departments of the healing art. The ancient Hindu physicians considered dissection as a necessary part of the education of the medical practitioner. Their method was rude and imperfect, but many of their conclusions were correct, as we have proved by the result of their osteological enumeration, and the accuracy of their description of the internal organs, and of the large vessels of the body.?

The ancient Hindu surgeons performed the most difficult operations; such as the Cæsarean section, embryotomy, lithotomy, etc. The first description of the last-named operation was given by Susruta, and was afterwards made known by Celsus, who derived his information from Egyptian surgeons, and they again acquired their knowledge from the East. Hippocrates, the judicious surgeon and benevolent practitioner, allowed, it is incorrectly stated, the performance of this operation only by uneducated quacks.

From these facts it would appear that at an early age the Hindus had made very considerable progress in the healing art, which enabled them to prepare systematic works on medicine, based on their own practical knowledge of anatomy, to which, at that time, the prejudice of mankind in general was so much opposed. Susruta informs us that an accomplished physician must possess an acquaintance with books, or theoretical knowledge, with the dissection of the human body, or anatomy, and a familiarity with the appearance of disease, or practice of medicine. This knowledge explains how the ancient system of Hindu medicine was so complete in all its parts, and

1 Royle's Essay on the Antiquity of Hindu Medicine, p. 111 et seq.
2 History of Medicine among the Asiatics, vol. i. s. i. p. 131, and 158 seq.
3 De Re Med., lib. v. ch. 26.

4 This injunction in the oath that was taken before entering upon the practice of the medical profession among the Greeks, was most probably a Mahommedan interpolation.

warrants the inference that several centuries were required to complete them. While the nations of the West have been slowly advancing, and mutually aiding one another, during the last two thousand years, the Hindus, by the depressing influence of Brahmanical intolerance and internal warfare, are now in a lower social condition than they were three or four centuries before the Christian


See Prof. Wilson, 1.c.; and note on Mill's Hist. of India, vol. ii. p. 232.

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His HIGHNESS THE KHEDIVE OF EGYPT, ISMAEL Pasha, has granted me the honour of representing his country at the International Congress of Orientalists in London. On this occasion this enlightened prince, to whom the study which I follow is so much indebted, has wished me to express in his name to the illustrious members of the Congress his most lively sympathies and his sincere admiration for the precious works with which they have enriched science, in bringing to light through their researches the remote ages of those happy countries of the East, which have been the cradle of humanity and the centres of first civilizations.

As His Highness has condescended to choose me for his delegate in London, I owe this distinction less to my modest merits than to the speciality of my last researches on the subject of the history of the Hebrews in Egypt.

Knowing the intense interest with which the English public follow all the principal discoveries in connexion with the sacred traditions of Holy Scripture, His Highness the Khedive has desired me to offer to the honourable Congress the most striking results of my studies, founded on the interpretation of the Egyptian monuments.

In offering you thus a page of the history of the Hebrews in Egypt, I would flatter myself that I may hope to secure your attention and satisfaction, so as to justify in this manner the great confidence with which His Highness has so kindly honoured me.

I will speak of the Exodus of the Hebrews; but before entering upon my subject, permit me to make one observation. It is to state that my discussion is based on the one hand on the text of Scripture, of which I have not changed a single iota ; on the other on Egyptian inscriptions on monuments, explained after the rules of a just critic, entirely devoid of anything of a fanciful nature.

Since nearly for twenty centuries, as I am going to prove, the translators and interpreters of Holy Scripture have wrongly comprehended and wrongly translated the geographical notions contained in that part of the biblical text which refers to the description of the sojourn of the Hebrews in Egypt, the fault, it is certain, is not with the sacred tradition, but with those who, ignorant of the history and the geography of past times, contemporary with the event of the history of the Hebrews in Egypt, have been obliged to reconstruct at all price the Exodus of the Hebrews on the scale of their feeble knowledge, not to say their complete ignorance.

According to Scripture, Moses, after having obtained permission from the Pharaoh of his time to lead the children of Israel to the desert, fatigued by the severe labour of building the two towns of Pitom and Ramses, departed with his people to the town of Ramses, arrived together at the station of Sukkoth and Etham; at this last encampment he turned, took the way towards Migdol, encamped afterwards against Migdol and the sea (remark that there is not a word about the Sea of Seaweed), opposite the entrance of Khiroth in sight of Baalzephon. Then the Hebrews pass by the Sea of Seaweed (translated by interpreters as the Red Sea), they remain three days in the desert without finding water, arrive at Marah, where the water is bitter, and end by encamping at Elim, the station having sweet water sources and little date woods.

Many savants who have occupied themselves with reconstructing the path of the Hebrews upon that given by Holy Seripture are

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of different opinions, and draw different results as to the march of the Hebrews. But all these savants, with the exception of two, unanimously agree that the passage through the Red Sea should be regarded as the most probable point of their route.

I dare not exhaust your patience in enumerating all the roads reconstructed by these savants, who certainly had the best intentions, but who fail in one thing very essential to the rest, the necessary geographical knowledge of ancient Egypt. But more than this, to discover the route of the Hebrews they have consulted Greek and Roman geographers who flourished 1000 years after Moses, and have marked the resting-places of the Hebrews by the Greek and Latin names of the geographers of Egypt, under the reigns of the Ptolemies and Cæsars.

If a lucky chance had preserved the manual of the geography of Egypt, which, according to the texts engraved on the walls of the temple of Edfou, was deposited in the vast library of the god Horus, which had this title “the book of the towns situated in Egypt, with the description of all that took place in them," we might dispense with all trouble of finding the places quoted in Holy Scripture. We should only have to consult this book to know where we are, as regards these Biblical names. Unfortunately this work has perished, with many other papyri, and science has regretted more than once the loss of a book so important as regards the antiquity of Egypt. But this loss is not irreparable! The monuments and the papyri, above all those of the dynasty of Ramessids, contain in themselves by thousands of texts and notices of a purely geographical nature, allusions sometimes of a topographical position, and further still, a very considerable number of inscriptions engraved on the walls of the temple contain pictures more or less extensive, by which we are able to determine in an exact manner the political division of Egypt, and the complete list of the departments of the country, accompanied by a host of curious details.

Here are the detached leaves of the lost book of which I have just spoken. It is necessary to receive it carefully, to compare one with the other, to endeavour to fill up the gaps, and finally to prepare from them the inventory.

Occupied for twenty years with this work, at the commencement of this year I succeeded in putting together the membra disjecta of

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