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Several other Etruscan gods may be identified with Accadian deities. Thus Hesychius tells us that the word Æsar meant "God' in Etruscan. The supreme national god of the Assyrians was Assur. The primitive form of this name was Ausar, which seems to have been of Babylonian origin."

The Etruscan Neth-uns, or Nept-une, seems to have been originally a solar rather than a marine deity. Now in Accadian the word nap means 'light,' and nab means “divinity,' while in Elamite annap means 'God.'

The legend of the capture of Veii, and of the transference of the Juno of Veii to Rome, indicates that the name and worship of the non-Aryan Juno were borrowed by the Romans from the Etruscans. Juno was the goddess of the day.' I have elsewhere shown that the word pervades every branch of the Altaic stem, from the Samojed jum heaven,' and the Turkic kun "day,' to the distant Basque egun

day. In the Accadian ugun, which means the day,' we have doubtless the most ancient form of this wide-spread word.

The Etruscan lemures (of which the singular form would probably be lem) may be compared with the genii, good or evil, which were called lamma by the Accadians.

A female deity called Lasa appears on several Etruscan mirrors. The name seems to be the same as that of the Chaldean goddess Laz, and the Los of the Samojeds.

Another female deity depicted on the Etruscan mirrors is called Munthuch. From her attributes, Gerhard pronounces her to be a Charis, giver of grace and favour. The Accadian explains this word completely. The first syllable mun means 'beneficent,' benefit,' in Accadian, and may be compared with the word manus 'good,' which occurs in the Salian hymn. The Accadian word tuc means 'to possess,' and is apparently related to the Etruscan teke dedit.' The name Munthuch would therefore denote the possessor or giver of good fortune.

The Eastern deity known as Anaitis was the Magian Venus, who was borrowed by the Assyrians under the name Andhita. On an Etruscan mirror Venus is styled Tiv-anaiti. The first syllable is apparently the Latin Diva in an Etruscan garb, and it may be

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1 Lenormant, Le Magie, p. 274.

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questioned whether the rest of the name belongs to the genuine staple of the Etruscan language and mythology, as the mirror is obviously of very late date.

The Accadian words num 'high,' enum 'heaven,' and nim 'to be elevated,' have been connected with the modern Wogul numen "lofty,' and the Ostiak noman 'heaven.' This word may be traced in the Etruscan noren-siles 'the heavenly lighteners,' a collective name for the gods who possessed the power of the thunderbolt. It is not improbable that the Latin numen, as a designation of deity, is of Etruscan rather than of Aryan origin, in which case refer it to the same root.

we should

III.- VOCABULARY.

Not only do we find these correspondencies in the names of Divine Beings, but a very large proportion of the small number of Etruscan words whose meaning is certain or probable are identical in sound and sense with words in the very limited Accadian vocabularies which are accessible to the student. When M. Lenormant's promised Accadian Dictionary appears, it will doubtless be possible largely to extend the list.

The primeval words which designate the family relationships survive the mutations of languages and nations with a greater persistency than any other class of words, and are therefore of the utmost importance as evidences of ethnic and philologic affinities.

Two of these words, which in the Etruscan epitaphs are applied to children, are sek and etera. The first means “daughter,' the second means 'boy,' 'young son,' or simply young.' The Etruscan sek • daughter,' may be confidently identified with the Susian sak “son.' Moreover, in Elamite a “son’ is sak-ri, where the syllable ri is only the common formative. The Elamite sacho-hut means 'we are descended,' and shows that the Elamite root sacho denoted filial descent.

The Etruscan etera 'young,' 'a young son,' may also be identified with the Elamite tar 'a son.' The primitive meaning is seen in the Accadian tura and tur, which mean small,' • little,' and are also, like the Etruscan etera, used in the general sense of son' or child,' while tur-us also means son,' literally "child-male.' In the modern Altaic languages the word survives in both senses. We have the

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Mordwin tsür 'a son, and the Tscheremis idyr 'a girl,' while 'young' is edder in Yakut, and edör in Tungus.

The Etruscan suffix -isa, which means "lady' or dame,' and which is universally applied to wives and mothers in the Etruscan mortuary records, may be identified with the Accadian word isse, which means “prince. This word, as an honourable appellation, applied either to men or women, and meaning either lord' or *lady,' prevails among the whole of the modern Altaic nations."

The well-known Etruscan word lar 'a lord,' corresponds phonetically, as I have elsewhere shown, to the Tatar Tzar "a prince.' We also find the word in Accadian, where sar means “king.' It appears in the name of Sar-gina 'rex primus,' the earliest monarch of Accadian legend. Hence also comes the Assyrian sarru 'king.'

In Etruscan ma meant land.' In Accadian the same word precisely ma meant · land,' or 'country.' In Esthonian ma also means • land,' and the word is found in most of the Altaic languages.

In Etruscan kul-mu denotes the spirit of the grave. I have elsewhere identified this name with the Finnic kal-ma, which in the Kalevala is used to mean the 'grave,' and also the ruler of the grave.' The Finnic words kuol 'to die,' and ma ' earth,' show that kal-ma is etymologically the land of the dead. The Accadian possesses both elements of the Etruscan and Finnic name, ma meaning, as we have seen, land,' and kul meaning to destroy.'

We are told by Festus that the word culina originally denoted, not any kitchen, but the kitchen which was attached to the tomb for the purpose of cooking the funeral feast. As Roman funeral rites were mostly derived from the Etruscans, we may suspect this to have been an Etruscan loan-word. I have already shown that the common Etruscan possessive suffix -na meant belonging to.' Culi-na would therefore mean 'mortuary,' belonging to the dead.'

There are other Etruscan words in which this suffix appears. Suth-ina has been already noted. We have also ka-na ‘a portrait, or "effigy.' In Accadian ka means the 'mouth.' The plural ka-ka means the face.' From ka ‘mouth,' by means of the post-position ba "side,' or part,' we get the Accadian ka-ba 'the side of the

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It may, I think, be the source of the final s in certain Etruscan names of deities, such as Nethuns, Sethlans, etc.

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mouth,' 'the cheek,' identical with the Tatar ka-pa "head.' By a change in the post-position, we get the Etruscan ka-na 'an effigy,' a word which would mean that which belongs to the mouth,' i.e. *the face.'

According to Hesychius, the Etruscan word dru-na meant 'sovereignty,' 'government.' I have not succeeded in tracing the word in the Altaic languages; but in Accadian tar means 'to judge,' and in Elamite tar-tu means retribution,' 'justice. Since the suffix -na means 'belonging to,' dru-na in Etruscan would be that which appertains to judgment or justice, i.e. ápxń, as Hesychius explains it.'

One of the half-dozen words of the speech of the ancient Huns which have been preserved by the Chinese historians is teulo, which denoted a “tumulus' or 'sepulchral mound.' In Accadian a ‘mound' is tul, a word which was borrowed by the Semites. In Etruscan the plural form tul-ar (stem tul) means 'tombs.'

In the Etruscan mortuary inscriptions we several times meet with the word am-ke, meaning he expired,' "he breathed his last.' The root of this word is am, which must mean 'breath. We may refer it to the Accadian im breath,' 'wind,' and the Mongol am-en "life,' 'breath.' The Etruscan ante 'winds, and andas Boreas,' are probably from the same root. Untar was the name of the ancient Finnish God of the Winds.

In the Etruscan inscriptions of dedications we find the verb tenine, which must mean ‘he offered,' or 'he deposited.' The root is ten. In Elamite dun-is (root dun) means "he gave.'

The Etruscan verb teke meant 'he gave.' This may be compared with the Accadian tuc “to have,' or 'possess.'

The Etruscan theke is equivalent to "fecit,' and is related to the Finnic teka 'to make.' In Elamite sik means to make.' The Etruscan rek is doubtless a related word.

The Etruscan kevelthu he burned,' may be compared with the Accadian gibil 'to burn.'

In Etruscan kahati is violent,' and in Accadian katti means 'to seize,' and gig means 'to be violent.' In Susian gik is powerful.'

The Accadian én 'incantation,' is doubtless the same word as the

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1 The Etruscan regal name Tar-quin may be thus explained as the Tar-khan, the “ Judging Prince."

? cf. the Ostiak kat-tem to seize,' and the Tatar katlió violent.'

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Buriat em or im 'a remedy' or 'medicine.' Hence we may explain the word ean, which is engraved on an Etruscan amulet.

Again, on an Etruscan drinking vessel the word an-sal is written. Since sal in Etruscan seems to have meant a “vessel' or 'cup, we may translate an-sal by Salutis Poculum, which is a well-known inscription on ancient drinking vessels.

In Elamite as means a chant' or 'hymn.' In Accadian the same word as means an 'imprecation' or "enchantment.' These words may serve to explain the inscriptions isi and asu, which appear respectively on an Etruscan amulet, and on an Etruscan amphora.

In Etruscan kehen and ken mean "this.' In Accadian gan means • this.'

The Etruscan suffix enna meant men.' In Accadian a man

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is un.

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The sheep sacrificed at the ides was called id-ul-is (= ide-sheep). Hence we may infer that ul meant a sheep' in Etruscan. In Accadian the word for sheep is lu.

In Etruscan it would seem that atr meant day.' Taking the as the common formative, the root would be at. In Accadian a day' is ud.

Local names are among the most permanent records of ancient speech. If the names of the Etruscan cities could not be explained from Accadian sources, it might be doubted, in spite of other evidence, whether the Etruscan and Accadian languages were really cognate; but in this department of the subject the evidences of linguistic affinity are conspicuous.

The most superficial observer cannot fail to be struck with one characteristic feature of Etruscan city names. A very large proportion of them begin with the prefix Vel- or Vol-, which must denote ' town' or 'dwelling. We have, for example, the cities of Velathri, Volci, Velsuna, Velsina, Voltumnæ, Velimnas, and Vulturnum. This prefix may be referred with confidence to the Accadian val or mal, which means 'to dwell' or 'inhabit.'

In Elamite we have also ir-vael and ir-mali, meaning "a dwelling,' a place of habitation. This is no doubt the same word as the Ostiak val 'to dwell,' the Magyar falu 'a town,' and the old Mongol balu

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