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ACCAD AND RESEN;

OR,

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE LANGUAGES OF THE ACCADIANS AND

THE RASENNA.

BY THE REV. ISAAC TAYLOR, M.A.

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IN

my “Etruscan Researches” I have attempted to explain the Etruscan records by means of the existing Altaic languages. To this attempt it has been objected, with some plausibility, that, granting the Etruscan to be an Altaic language, it must, at the most moderate estimate, have branched from the Altaic stem at least three thousand years ago, during which period the existing Finnic and Turkic languages, destitute of a literature, and spoken only by hordes of wandering savages, must have undergone dialectic changes so great as to make them useless as a basis for the interpretation of the Etruscan records.

A few years ago no answer could have been given to this objection. Now, however, the Cuneiform inscriptions have made known to us three Turanian languages of the Altaic type, whose written records date from a period not less ancient than those of the Etruscans. These three languages are the Elamite (Third Achæmenian), the Susian, and the Accadian. As might be expected, they throw immense light on the vocabulary and structure of the Etruscan, a language of equal antiquity, and belonging to the same family of speech.

Some of the chief points of agreement I will now proceed to indicate.

I.-GRAMMAR.

In Etruscan the genitive is usually expressed by position only, without the use of any inflexion. The genitive follows its subject : e.g. Hinthial Patrukles “the ghost of Patrokles.' The same construction, exactly, is used in Susian (e.g. s’unkik Anzan ‘king of Anzan'); and also in Accadian (e.g. é dingira “the house of God '). In Elamite we have also the genitive of position; but the genitive here precedes the subject, as Kuras sakri Cyrus' son.' The Basque and the Wotiak follow the same rule as the Accadian, the Susian and the Etruscan ; the other Altaic languages, as a rule, agree with the Elamite."

In Susian and Elamite, side by side with this genitive of position, we have also a genitive of inflexion. This is expressed by the suffix -na, a post-position which is used in Accadian to denote both the genitive and the ablative. I need hardly remark that the use of this post-position -na is one of the most universal and characteristic features in the whole of the Altaic languages.

In Etruscan this post-position -na is freely used; it has a genitival or possessive force, meaning of' or 'belonging to.' Thus from suthi 'a tomb,' we get suthi-na 'a sepulchral offering,' literally 'that which belongs to a tomb. Gentile names are thus ordinarily constructed from an ancestral prænomen. Thus from the prænomina Vele, Tete, and Veltur, we get the Gentile names Vel-na and Velina, Teti-na, and Veltur-na.

Other Etruscan Gentile names, such as Sentina-te and Urina-te, are formed from prænomina by the addition of the post-position -te, which must denote derivation from. It may be compared with the Accadian post-position -ta, which means 'from,' as well as with the Yenissei Ostiak genitive in -da and the Koibal locatives in -ta and -da.

Accadian post-positions seem occasionally to answer to prepositions in Etruscan. Thus the Etruscan preposition ir means 'from,' as in ir Pupliana from Populonia.' We may identify this preposition with the Accadian post-position -ra, which means “from,' and which seems to be the same as the Elamite ablative in -mar, and the modern Yenisseian ablative in -er.

The Etruscan preposition nak means 'to,' as nak Achrum 'to

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Lenormant, Et. Acc., vol. i. p. 175.

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Acheron.' This corresponds closely with the Accadian na-cu 'to,' and the Magyar nak 'to.'i

The Etru can ethnic suffis -ach, as in Rumach 'a Roman,' Svepmach 'a Sabine,' Velznach 'a Volscian,' and Pusach a Pisan.' In Susian we find the same suffix, bearing the same signification, as Susinak 'a Susian.' This suffix is still commonly used in the formation of the names of Siberian tribes, such as Ostiak, Kosak, Wotiak, Koriak, Aimak, Karakalpak, Usbek, Jurak, and Kalmuk. It may possibly be connected with the Accadian uku 'people,' but more probably it is to be referred to the Accadian suffix ga, which is used to form adjectives; thus from kal strength,' comes kal-ga *powerful.' Traces of this adjectival suffix may, I think, be detected in Etruscan. Thus from suthi sepulchrum,' comes suthik sepulchrale.” This would agree exactly with the Susian mode of forming adjectives, e.g. libak strong,' from a root liba.?

In Etruscan the article, or indeterminate case, is denoted by the suffix -8, as Truials 'a Trojan. In Elamite the indefinite article is expressed by the suffix -ra, and the definite article by the suffix -vas, which Dr. Norris identifies with the suffix -8, which has the same force in Mordwin. The Etruscan participial sign was -an.

The Accadian participial sign was originally -an, afterwards cut down to -a.

In Elamite and Accadian the plural suffix is mes. In Zirianian it is -yas, and in Wotiak it is -y08. Prof. Max Müller believes that the old Ugric plural was -as. This

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be identified with -ar, the Etruscan plural suffix. The change of s to r is exemplified in the Turkic, Mongolic and Dravidian languages, which form the plural in -lar, -nar, and -mar, respectively.

The numerals in Accadian and Etruscan are very imperfectly known, but among the few which have been determined there are some curious correspondencies.

Thus in Accadian sa is ‘four,' a numeral apparently connected with the Accadian su hand.' In Etruscan we have the same word 8a, also meaning “four.'

In Accadian essa means 'three.' The Etruscan numeral for 'three' is written in the two forms esal and sal.

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It answers to the Elamite -ikki and the Tatar -ke. ? Lenormant, Le Magie, p. 322.

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In Etruscan ki is 'two,' and kis is second.' In Accadian kas is 'two,' and ki means with,' and Mr. Sayce thinks it may also be a sign of the dual.

The Etruscan numeral mach one,' seems to be derived from an Altaic word meaning 'finger-nail' or 'finger.' This word may be recognized in the Accadian amas •a nail.' The Accadian numeral for 'one' is it, a word which originally denoted the hand’; the idea of unity being denoted by holding up the hand, as in Etruscan by holding up the finger. But in Etruscan this word it hand' becomes the source, not of the numeral 'one,' but of the numeral 'five,' which is written thu. The Samojed utte arm,' gives a transitional form.

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II.-MYTHOLOGY.

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In Accadian, as well as in Elamite, the divine determinative is the prefix An-, which means "high,' or God.' In Etruscan the same syllable an or un also forms the divine determinative, with this difference, that it is used as a suffix instead of a prefix to the names of Divine Beings. Examples are Tur-an, Thes-an, Me-an, Summ-an (Summanus), Char-un, Neth-un-s, Vulc-an and Di-ana.

The Accadian is helpful in two ways when we attempt to explain the names of the Etruscan deities. In a few cases the same god, bearing the same name, was worshipped both by Accadians and Etruscans. In a larger number of cases the Accadian affords an explanation, more or less perfect, of the names of Etruscan deities.

To go fully into these mythological correspondencies would demand far more space than I have at my disposal—a few instances of either kind must suffice.

There is an Etruscan mirror of very archaic type, on which the Sun-God and the Moon-Goddess are unmistakably portrayed under the names of Aplun and Lala. The Accadian serves to show, I think, that the name Lala, here given to the Moon, is derived from the likeness of a human face,' which is so conspicuously seen in the full moon. In Accadian the word alala means “image,' statue,' sculpture,' and is also used as an appellation of the Sun. Curiously enough, this word, which means “moon' in Etruscan, and 'image' or statue' in Accadian, is used in Mongolian to denote both these ideas. An initial 1 in Etruscan and in Accadian usually corresponds

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to a Mongolian 8, and a medial 1 to r. Therefore the Etruscan lala would appear in Mongol as sara. Now in Mongol sara means the 'moon,' and sharai means “a face.' Thus the Mongol curiously dovetails together the Accadian and the Etruscan words.

The 'Sun' is also depicted on this mirror under the name Aplun. The name constantly recurs on Etruscan mirrors in the forms Apul, Apulu, and Aplu. It may, I think, be confidently affirmed that no satisfactory Aryan etymology of the name Apollo has as yet been propounded. When, however, we turn to the Accadian, we find a satisfactory explanation of the name from the word pil or bil, which means to 'burn' or scorch. The name of the 'year,' which is pal in Accadian, and beul-gi in Elamite, is probably a related word.

The Accadian deity Moul-ge 'the Earth-God,' or 'the Lord of Subterranean Fire,' reappears in the Turanian worships of Italy as Vulcan. The final an in Vulcan is, of course, only the usual divine determinative.

Moul-ge forms one of the Accadian triad of great gods, Anna, Ea, and Moul-ge, who preside respectively over the air, the water, and the earth. M. Lenormant has identified this Accadian triad with the triad of the Finnic Kalevala, where the same offices are respectively discharged by Jumala (Ukko), Wäinämöinen, and Il-marinnen. In the Kalevala Il-marinnen is the heavenly smith who forges the celestial canopy. His symbol is the hammer. I believe that the first syllable of the name Il- is ultimately identical with the Accadian Moul, and the Vul of Vulcan.

Éa (Noah), the Accadian god who presides over the waters, is identical with the Finnic Wäinämöinen, and the Italic Janus or Eanus (Oannes of Berosus), whose ancient symbol is a ship.

Anna, the first god of the Accadian triad, also called si-anna “the Spirit of Heaven,' is, I think, the same as ti-en or thi-an 'the Spirit of Heaven,' whose name and worship the Chinese borrowed from the Mongols. Among the Etruscans he reappears as Ti-nal 'the supreme heaven,' answering to Jupiter, and also in the female form as Di-ana; and we may identify him with Ukko, Jumala, or Vanha taivahinen, the heaven god of the Finnic triad.

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1cf. the name Dingir or Dimir, the supreme heaven god of the Accadians, and the Tatar Dengir God' The suffix ir being only a formative, the root is Ding or Dim. Din or Dimma means ' spirit' in Accadian.

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