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difficulty, however, was easily got rid of, by his observing that the organ of poetry is a continuation of the organ of music, and that both import time, which is an attribute of clocks and watches.

“ A man of the name of Koelner was confined in the house of correction on account of some threatening speeches to a person who was afterwards found murdered. Dr. Gall observed in this man the organs of haughtiness and obstinacy, but by no means that of murder.This was somewhat unlucky: but the dilemma was soon overcome, as, “ according to the opinion of Dr. Gall, the organs which he had noticed in the prisoner were sufficient to lead

any one to commit murder." “ Two other thieves were examined, and in both of them the organs of thieving and cunning were remarkable. Concerning one of them he expressed himself thus: “To judge by the flatness of the fore part of the skull of this man, he is mercenary and easily to be seduced, and his organ for music is eminent.' The man spoke much of his being thrown into his misfortunes by se duction. With regard to music, he acknowledged that he had joined with pleasure in psalm-singing !!Q. E. D.

“ Dr. Gall spoke of M**n, a journeyman-bricklayer, in the following manner: * His organ for thieving is very visible : he has likewise the organ of representation : but his organs for haughtiness and obstinacy, and that for music, are still more conspicuous. Upon inquiring into his conduct we were assured that he was very obstinate and rebellious, and that he had once made his escape.

With respect to his instinct for music, we were told that he was the best psalm-singer in the whole congregation. Dr. Gall observed that this convict ought not to be punished, as his organization was so very favourable.

And here we cannot but remark, in conclusion, the intimate connexion of the present system, if system it may be called, with the doctrines of fatalism or philosophical necessity, and materialism. This charge, indeed, has been often brought against it, and in the work before us is attempted to be repelled. In this attempt Dr. Spurzheim is far from being successful : he writes and reasons plausibly, but by no means strictly.

We have already had occasion to observe that he sometimes takes things for proved or demonstrated without any proof whatever: thus p. 88. “ I here take this for granted : its particular elucidation must be demonstrated afterwards. I mention this proof only for the sake of connexion.” We have not been able to find out any demonstration afterwards. So p. 44. “ It una. voidubly follows that in hydrocephalus the convolutions are separated into two parts. "This is more probable, &c.” Here a necessary result or incontrovertible proof is confounded with a

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loose degree of probability. In like manner our author opposes the common doctrine respecting the primitive or general faculties of the mind, as perception, thought, reason, judgment, imagination, and their developement by the means of education and other external influences; and substitutes and endeavours to establish his own doctrine of special faculties, as those of wit, numbers, music, mechanics, murder, thieving, &c. upon the ruin of the former, by vaguely employing the term faculiy sometimes in the sense of an attribute capable of being produced, and at others of an attribute actually produced ; and upon this confusion of idea the question as here treated of chiefly hinges, whether the faculties of the mind are innate or acquired? So again the term will is occasionally used in its ordinary sense, as importing desire; and occasionally in its more correct sense, as a faculty or power of a very different kind.

On these accounts we cannot subscribe to the correctness of our author's reasoning, or the arguments by which he endeavours to disentangle himselt. It was our intention to have pursued these arguments at some length, but we feel that we have already written upon these discussions on the brain till we are in danger of a vertigo.

Art. V. The Lord of the Isles. A Poem. By Walter Scott.

4to. Edinburgh. 1815. By one “ brave bound” Walter Scott placed himself in the first rank of modern poets. He merited and acquired fame, and all. that literary fame can give. Success stimulated his exertions, and four distinguished poems, subsequent to his Lay of the Last Minstrel, attest the vigour of his genius, and the opulence of his resources. Popularity may often be an equivocal proof of merit; but when it is obtained without flattering any prevailing prejudices or passions, and is bestowed from gratitude for pleasure. which has been received, it is generally fairly earned, and is likely to last. Nature is true to itself, and wherever it finds its own impress, even though marred with some defects, it hails, the discovery with an involuntary burst of delight.

To unite the suffrages of all on points of taste is impossible, and therefore we can feel no surprise that Mr. Scott has often been blamed for the inartificial arrangement of his fables, and the injudicious adoption of his metre, These charges, in our opinion, have not been altogether substantiated: for, if the object of the art is to produce, from given materials, the greatest effect, in a pre

scribed manner, to justify dispraise it should be shown, that the poet has failed of producing what he intended ; and this has not been done. It is contrary to every principle of critical equity ta judge him by the laws of the epopeia, under which he never placed himself, and to which he is not amenable. If we mistake not his purpose, it was to mould his stories after the plan of the metrical romances, with all the accompaniments of scenery and manners suitable to the heroical ages of our history, yet with such improvements, both in sentiment and language, as the present state of literature required ;-and to give a picture of ans cient society in its different classes, preserving one guiding principle through all the varieties of change, viz. to display man as he then was. . To accomplish this purpose, he selected his sub jects from those periods when political defects were poetical advan ges;-when characters started from the canvass in those bold lines, which civilization softens into comparative feebleness;

-when the spirit of chivalry, with a wild and lofty irregularity striving to supply the deficiency of a scanty and ill-executed code of laws, by repressing what was base, and practising all that was generous, ruled the wilderness of free minds with unbounded authority. With such subjects, bold narration and graphical description never allow the attention to tire, and amply compensate for a statelier march, and a more complex arrangement. Sometimes, perhaps, they have kept the attention too intently fixed, and have occasioned a hurried, breathless reading, which passes over unobserved a large portion of the more delicate and retired beauties, yet all unconscious of its negligence, raises complaints against defects which do not exist. To this cause we are disposed to attribute, in a considerable degree, the condemnation of Mr. Scott's versification for being Alippant and jingling, which it certainly will appear to be when read at full speed. But we question whether any measure is so well suited to daring actventures, and rapid evolutions, as the eight-syllable verse, which keeps the mind alert and eager, and possesses the advantage (an advantage to be used with reserve) of sometimes sliding with ease and grace into other metres, more in harmony with different parts of the poem, where either gaiety or pathos prevail.

The Lord of the Isles takes a loftier flight than any of its predecessors. It exhibits a king struggling against a sea of trouble, encountering dangers of the most terrific form, with an arm that never tires, and a heart that never fails; converting enemies into friends hy a dignificd prudence and a magnanimous spirit; and succeeding, at length, in the establishment of his throne, by the total defeat of the most powerful invasion which ever threatened the independence of his country. The design is so grand as to excite a wish that no extraneous subject had injured its sim-:

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plicity. But then we mast have had an epic poem, which it was not the purpose of Mr. Scott to produce. He has, therefore, placed in the front of his piece Ronald, the Lord of the Isles, who possesses the ordinary virtues of a bold chieftain; but none of that resplendency of character which only high moral qualities can confer. The struggles between his honour and his lore; his faith plighted to one fair lady, and his affections-devoted to another, excite no sympathy; for there is such a want of honesty in offering the hand without the heart, that we calmly contemplate his crosses and disappointments as merited punishment. Yet to his wayward and fluctuating loves we are indebted for the interesting adventures of the Maid of Lorn, which in terweave themselves very naturally with the tissue of the story. But the best apology for this island chief is the necessity of masking the real hero, who could scarcely have taken his station in the title-page, without rendering the poem more rigidly historical than would have suited the texture of a romantic lay. Sweeping the ocean with his glittering fleet, and presiding at his magnificent feast in the Castle of Artomish, Lord Ronald raises expectations of his importance, which vanish' in the circle of that illumination which the King spreads: around him. The second place, however, being destined for Lord Ronald, if he was not to be great, at least he should have better deserved the affection of Edith, who is allowed to sacrifice that delicacy which constitutes the highest charm of beauty, by condescending to take the rejected lover of Isabel, scarcely repentant for his former scorn. This defect, together with the want of that transparent honour which shows the purity of its motives at a glance, mars the appeals to the heart, and lowers. the imagination to the level of vulgar convenience. Commonness of character, in all cases, has so much of the vis inertice about it, that it is difficult to overcome its resistance, and, with all the exertions of genius, its dead weight must be felt; but in an heroic age, where what is good or bad is such in an eminent degree, it is a sin for which an indulgence cannot easily be purchased. We lay the greater stress upon this point, because we think that strength and individuality of character are the more vital parts of such poems as those by which Mr. Scott has conferred fame upon his country. To narrate adventures, and describe scenery, are within the imitative faculty.of middling minds: but to draw characters of the higher order with the firm pencil of nature ; to show them in their strength and their weakness; to mark the steady operation of principles; to catch the changeable huesi of passion; and to combine the differing parts into one consistent whole; ask for the highest tones of feeling with the deepest sagacity of research; à masculine vigour of observation with a delicate sensibility of heart; grand original materials, happily counterpoised, and extensively improved.

That Mr. Scott possesses this admirable art, so powerful in effect, we shall show by the extracts which we shall soon give: we only regret that he uses it rather too sparingly, and sometimes too carelessly. But before we proceed to this part of our employment, we must give a brief account of the fable, if fable that may be called which is almost a history of an important period in the romantic life of a chivalrous king.

After some preparatory lines of great beauty, the poem begins with a morning address to Edith, the Maid of Lorn, by the bards:

“ met from main land and from isle,

Ross, Arran, Ilay, and Argyle,” at Artornish Castle, to celebrate her marriage with Lord Ronald, its possessor. But song had lost all power to fascinate her heart, which was oppressed by sorrows, and insensible to the blandishments of flattery and the promises of bliss. In gloomy silence having endured the officious zeal of her attendants to adorn her person, she retires with her foster-mother to a distant tower, where the cause of her distress is drawn from her in a burst of indignation, when she is urged to believe herself the happiest of women. She complains, in the eloquence of grief, of love unreturned, of cold observance, and of long neglect: she even expresses her suspicions, that some lighter fair has detained the tardy bridegroom on that very morning: Scarcely has she finished the enumeration of her grievances, before the fleet of the Lord of the Isles is descried, “ streamer'd with silk and tricked with gold,” flying in the gay costume before the gale. • The attention is then directed to a solitary vessel, which allday-long had been beating up against the adverse wind and baffling tide. In this frail bottom King Robert Bruce, his brother Edward, and sister Isabel, had embarked their last hopes, and were endeavouring to reach some friendly port on their native shore. Finding all their efforts useless, they resolved to seek shelter in the castle of an enemy, and to claim the rights of hospitality as unknown warriors. They are readily admitted into Artornish, under the supposition that they are the Abbot and his attendants come to perform the marriage ceremony. The mistake being soon discovered, they are left in a room appropriated to squires and grooms, and inferior clansmen, while their arrival is announced to Lord Ronald and his guests. The description of the lowering tempest, the boisterous sea, the conflicting currents, the hoarse blasts of the gale swollen with the loud shouts of revelry, and Artornish " 'twixt cloud and ocean

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