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common origin of man, but never a universal deluge. In the next place, the fossil remains belong to a multitude of periods, and not always to deluges. To appeal to those in the mountains, requires us to suppose a series of suppositions which we shall not here occupy space with. And surely Buckland's old book should not now be appealed to. It was published more than forty years ago, and the author afterwards, with much candour, admitted the uncertainty of its principal conclusion —the recent submersion of the entire globe.

That we are not wrong in regarding the work before us as having a weak side in the direction we have mentioned, might be further shewn if necessary ; but we will only refer to the genealogies of Genesis x, and xi, as treated in this book. We do not think the treatment either sufficiently copious or scientific; for abundant as are the references in it, it shews few traces of ethnographic research and observation.

But, over and above the minor blemishes and deficiencies of this commentary, it combines so much sound scholarship and right feeling, that we are very happy to meet with it here in our own language. It will be found very useful for consultation, partly on account of the large amount of information it embodies, and partly for its interpretations and criticisms. Of course it is not introduced as an infallible dogmatist, like some of the theologians, but it is recommended as an honest, prudent, and painstaking counsellor, whose judgment and experience it will be well for us to know.

The Practical Works of David Clarkson, B.D. Vol. I. Edinburgh :

James Nichol. The following is given as a summary of what is actually known of this able divine: “ David Clarkson was born at Bradford in Yorkshire, in the month of February 1621-2. He was educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, and became fellow and tutor in that college in 1645. He gave up his fellowship in 1651, on his marriage with a Miss Holcroft; and he was afterwards Rector of Mortlake, Surrey; from which he was ejected by the Act of Uniformity in 1662. After this, he spent his time in retirement and study, until, in 1682, he was chosen as colleague to Dr. John Owen, in the pastorship of his congregation in London. On the death of Owen in the following year, he became sole pastor of the congregation, and discharged his duty faithfully until his death in 1682." Clarkson was unquestionably one of the most accomplished of the “non-jurors” of 1662, both as a preacher and as a controversialist. In Church matters he adopted opinions much in harmony with those of the Independent party, and wrote against diocesan Episcopacy, as well as against the use of liturgies. These and other polemical writings are known and recognized as annong the best on the side of which they treat. But, after all, Clarkson is a more eminent and a more attractive man in his sermons and other practical works, and to these this edition is to be confined. They are very judiciously estimated in the editor's Preface, where it is admitted that the “sermons are of very various

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degrees of excellence. Some of them may be ranked amongst the finest sermons in our language, while others are of little more than average merit.” It must not be forgotten that the sermons appeared after the decease of their author, and that they lost the benefit of a final revision. Had this revision been permitted, doubtless some things would have been improved and corrected. As it is, we have his first thoughts, and we assure our readers they will find a vigour, a freshness, and a suggestiveness about these discourses, which will well repay them for the perusal. If this is not enough, we can generally commend them from the very practical standpoints of Christian doctrine and the Christian life. This edition is well got up, and a marvel of cheapness. Clarkson occupies his proper place by the side of Adams and Goodwin, Sibbes, Charnock, and Bates. Like most of his class he was Calvinistic, probably even more so than the thirty-nine articles. Be that as it may, let those who want thoughts, and good and true ones, not shun this work. We have in our time read, perhaps, all the sermons, and therefore know that the preacher was a man who had some stuff in him, and that of the right sort. The objectionable matter, and there is such to our mind, is chiefly found where Calvinistic principles are carried too far, and where harsh language is used of the Papists. Our own feeling upon this point will, we suppose, be that of most who read the works of Clarkson; but we do not forget that the best and most earnest of men commonly most need, as they most violate, the precept-Ne quid nimis.

St. Paul the Apostle : a Biblical Portrait and a Mirror of the manifold

grace of God. By W. F. Besser, D.D. Translated by FREDERIC BULTMANN. With an Introductory Notice by Rev. J. S. Howson,

D.D. London: Nisbet and Co. Among the Protestants, at least, St. Paul appears to be the favourite apostle. The instinct is a true one, St. Paul's commission was peculiarly to the Gentiles, as that of St. Peter was to the Jews. With an instinct equally true, the apostle of the Jews is the favourite among the Roman Catholics. Paul was the apostle of the Gospel for the wide wide world, to bring men to the spiritual unity of faith. Peter was the apostle to the circumcision, the diaspora, to bring them to the true faith of Abraham. Paul's mission was Catholic, and Peter's was somewhat exclusive. Yet oddly enough they who claim Peter as their head, call themselves the Catholic Church : and they who shut out all not of their communion from the hope of salvation, arrogate to themselves such titles as æcumenical and universal. Now they who would see the character of St. Paul the apostle to the Gentiles ably sketched in its successive phases, should read Dr. Besser's book. We need only say that we agree with Dr. Howson's concluding remark about it, “A popular book as opposed to a mere theological treatise; but it is evidently based on a careful, minute, and prolonged study of all that is said in the New Testament by St. Paul, and of St. Paul; and I believe it will be found full of useful suggestions to those whose duty it is to teach others, as well as eminently adapted to build up unlearned believers in their most holy faith.” The author is already favourably known in this country by his work on St. John, published by Messrs. Clark, whose translator unfortunately confounded him with his relative Rudolph, as Mr. Bultmann informs us. Dr. Besser may be called a high-church evangelical Lutheran, but his high-churchism, will be received or declined by his readers according to their taste, and does not interfere with the general tone of the book.

The Book of Ruth in Hebrew, with a Critically Revised Text, various

Readings, including a New Collation of Twenty-eight Hebrew MSS. (most of them not previously collated) ; and a Grammatical and Critical Commentary; to which is appended the Chaldee Targum, with various readings, Grammatical Notes, and a Chaldee Glossary. By CHARLES H. H. Wright, M.A., British Chaplain at Dresden.

London: Williams and Norgate. We have to thank Mr. Wright for probably not only the most copious critical edition of Ruth by a British editor, but for the only critical edition yet published in this country so far as we are aware. The volume contains the Hebrew text, with a collection of various readings; the Chaldee Targum, with various readings, and a glossary; and a very elaborate critical commentary upon the book—à rather copious introduction occurs almost as a matter of course. The introduction tells us that the volume aims to be serviceable to younger students, and, at the same time, to assist riper scholars, and we gather from an inspection of the work that it answers to its intention. The younger student will be instructed by the grammatical notes and references; and the advanced scholar will find in the critical notes, various readings, and other things, matter for study and examination. The collation of MSS., and of printed editions and versions, as well as of the collections of men like Kennicott and De Rossi, must have involved no small amount of labour and patience. That the book may be as complete as possible, the accentuation has received special attention. In fact, we do not know what point connected with the grammatical and literal study of the text has been overlooked. We believe the volume well adapted to promote the critical study of the Old Testament, the importance of which is as apparent as its too general neglect.

A part of the introduction is devoted to questions connected with the book of Ruth. The question of authorship cannot be solved ; and that of date receives different answers. Some writers, as Dr. S. David. son, think it was written in Hezekiah's reign, and base that opinion on internal evidence. Mr. Wright pleads for an earlier origin, and would carry it back to David's time. His discussion of opposite views is temperate and appropriate, and we are quite inclined to accept his conclusions. We also agree with him as to the difficulties raised by the genealogy at the end of the book, and do not see our way to any confident explanation of them. On these points, however, we beg refer to Mr. Wright's volume, which will, we are sure, be welcomed on

many accounts. It supplies a desideratum, and, like his former work on Genesis, and Dr. W. Wright's Jonah in four languages, is excellently fitted for purposes of tuition.

The Restoration of Belief. By ISAAC Taylor. A new edition;

revised, with an additional section. London: Macmillan and Co. When we hear a man calling himself “a seeker for truth,” we may guess, with some chance of safety, that he is more or less under the power of unbelief. It is wonderful how some men can stand before truth, and look her in the face, and say, “ Art thou truth ?” and analyse her pretensions and cross-question her witnesses like an Old Bailey practitioner. Depend upon it such men will never confess truth to be truth, so long as they can raise a difficulty or start an objection against it. They will not be convinced by a balance in her favour ; nothing short of absolute and crushing demonstration will convince them, and even the mode and fashion of the demonstration must be of their own choosing. This is an unhappy condition to be in, and an unnatural one; and every approach to it is unhappy and abnormal. It is not the true ancient scepticism of the philosophers, but Pyrrhonism or near akin to it. There are, however, doubters in a more favourable position, by being at least accessible to some sorts of evidence. To such we commend this book. The current of thought which runs through it is calm and clear; its tone is earnest and its manner courteous. The author has carefully studied the successive problems which he so ably handles, and we feel as we read that he, at least, understands the workings of unbelief, while he is under the power of faith. Not modes of faith, but faith, living and reasonable faith, is what he inculcates and recommends. But that faith is not the formal assent of the mind to philosophical principles and logical demonstrations, so much as Christian faith, which is in truth both philosophical and logical. The Scripture is the great authority in this matter, and its claims are examined and defended. The chapter now added is “ The present position of the argument concerning Christianity: Ernest Renan.” In this chapter the author enumerates the concessions of M. Renan,—the historic reality of the person of Christ, and the substantial authenticity of the four Gospels, -and makes a series of observations upon sundry points in the Life of Jesus. He does not think the controversy ended, but looks for a new phase of the argument of unbelief. We have much pleasure in directing attention to this new edition of a book which those who are interested in present controversies should peruse.

Eucharistic Meditations for a Month, on the Most Holy Communion.

Translated and abridged from the French of AVRILLON. Part II.
Edited by the Rev. ORBY SHIPLEY, M.A. London: Joseph

Masters. The author of this work was a monk, who died at Paris in 1729, leaving behind him a reputation as a preacher and a devout Christian. The endeavour to adopt to English use his meditations and sentiments on the Holy Communion, will be acceptable to those whose views of this ordinance approximate to those of the Church of Rome. There are many pious sentiments, but the language will be considered exaggerated by the majority of English churchmen. To speak honestly, we think the publication of books embodying purely Romish doctrines concerning the sacraments a very doubtful-benefit. Weak-minded people may say, "If Protestants are allowed to go so far, why may they not go a little farther and cease to be schismatics when they have ceased to be heretics?" If transubstantiation is a doctrine of the English Church why is it not declared to be such? That it was believed by the author of this work, will, we suppose, not be doubted, and that it is recognized, will be naturally expected. The following sentence leaves little doubt as to the character of Father Avrillon's doctrine and tendencies, “Give ear unto the most humble Acts of thanksgiving which my spirit, my heart, and my tongue offer unto Thee for having vouchsafed to bestow on me to-day, as my Food, Thy Body, Thy BLOOD, Thy Soul, and Thy DIVINITY, Which are the Sources of all Purity, and Which sanctify the Purity of those who bare endeavoured to purify themselves before drawing nigh unto Thine Altar." If it be true that under the forms of bread and wine in the Communion the faithful receive as their food, the body and blood, the soul and divinity of God, it is of no use rejecting transubstantiation. We say the body," etc., of God, because the preceding sentence begins “O incomparable Purity, O all-powerful God." As critics of the Holy Scriptures we can find in them no warrant for such doctrine as this, uttered though it is in the language of devout enthusiasm.

Scattered Leaves of Biography. By John CAMPBELL COLQUHOUN.

London : William Macintosh. The biographies are: Nicholas Louis, Count of Zinzendorf ; Louisa of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; Frederick Perthes ; William Wordsworth; S. T. Coleridge; J. M. W. Turner; and A. W. Pugin. As for Zinzendorf, he was a wonderful example of self-denial and zeal, and his labours for the promotion of vital godliness deserve all praise. There is much in his writings to which we should seriously object, but we readily join in the commendation bestowed upon him. Of the other characters in the volume, we need not here to speak. Though not actually reckoned among the heroes of the Church, some of them deserve to be, and others are, to say the least, faithful allies. Of course Mr. Pugin stands by himself as the Christian architect, a member of the Church of Rome, but not always. And poor. Turner,—the amiable and the gifted Turner, -stands by himself, leaving no evidence that he ever felt the slightest interest in religion. The book is fairly and properly written, and will supply interesting information to general readers.

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