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work by the Rev. T. R. Eaton on Shakespeare and the Bible ; shewing how much the great dramatist was indebted to Holy Writ for his profound knowledge of human nature. The plan of this is somewhat different, but it involves much of the matter found in the other. Much as we admire Shakspeare, we cannot approve of all that is here said ; as, for instance, that our translators were more indebted to the poet's language, than the poet was to the English version. The comparison was one which ought not to have been made, although it is true that most of the plays were published, or written, before our present version appeared. Any one acquainted with the English Bibles most common in Sbakspeare's days, must be aware that their language is to a wonderful extent the same as in our translation. And besides the theological literature of the time never commends, but often condemns stage plays. That this was the feeling of the religious part of the community then, may be inferred from the fact, that in Shakspeare's native town, in his own lifetime, the performance of stage plays was forbidden by the corporation. Nor have we any reason to believe that even printed plays were much read by religious people. Only about one-half of Shakspeare's plays appears to have been published before his death ; and the remainder not till 1623. The volume before us contains two chapters on noticeable words and forms of speech found both in Shakspeare and the Bible, but probably every one of these might be found in the current literature of the time. Some of them are certainly not peculiar to these two books, nor even to the time. The Biblical allusions in Shakspeare are many and interesting, and we may infer from them that he had read the Scriptures carefully, and was not irreverent towards them. There is much in the longest chapter, on Shakspeare's religious principles and sentiments, which is in our judgment far-fetched. We say, then, let the poet retain his place at the head of secular literature, but let him not be either beatified or canonized. He has honours enough of his own ; let us be careful how we thrust upon him honours which do not belong to him. He was the poet of nature and of life, not of the Gospel.

The Nature and Extent of Divine Inspiration, as stated by the writers,

and deduced from the facts of the New Testament. By Rev. C. A.

Row, M.A. London: Longmans. To say that this book is upon a subject of great present importance, is only to say what all are conscious of. It may, however, be necessary to premise that the inspiration of the New Testament writers is chiefly considered. At the same time the author grapples with the wider and more general question of inspiration. He lays it down as a principle, that the inadequacy of all human conceptions of the Infinite limit the extent of truth which can be communicated in a revelation. He discusses various theories of inspiration, but does not accept the verbal one. He shews that a divine revelation is possible, but he holds that a revelation to be intelligible must be through the medium of human thoughts, conceptions, and ideas, more or less remotely representing the divine realities; and also that a divine revelation must be miraculously attested. A number of other conclusions are set forth at the close of chap. v., and to these we invite the reader's attention.

“1. That as far as the Creator designed to make a revelation, he would fully realise his own purposes in making it.—2. That the conceptions through which the revelation must be communicated cannot be the Divine ideas themselves, but their analogous representations and approximations in human thought.-3. That to make the revelation an intelligible revelation to the mind of man, it must be made through the medium of human thoughts, conceptions, and ideas, more or less remotely representing the divine realities.-4. That, even on the highest theory of inspiration, the human origin of the conceptions in which a revelation must be expressed is a necessary human element in every conceivable revelation.-5. That a revelation must be authenticated by a miraculous attestation, if it is to have a binding obligation on the human conscience.-6. That we have no antecedent knowledge, amounting to certainty, as to the amount of truth which a divine revelation must contain.—7. That we have a very high degree of evidence that, in communicating a revelation, God would act in a manner analogous to the mode which he has already pursued in creation and providence.-8. That the evidence of a direct miraculous attestation given to a revelation is not affected by difficulties in its contents, which rest on no other foundation than uncertain probabilities.-9. That the only adequate ground which would justify the rejection of a supposed revelation, supported by an apparent adequate attestation, is that some portion of its contents palpably contradict self-evident truth respecting the Divine character and perfections, of which supposed contradiction the reason of man enables him to form an adequate judgment, and arrive at conclusions not based on probabilities, but on certainties.-10. That although the representation of divine truths by human conceptions of greater or less degree of imperfection must be a human element in every revelation, yet, if a revelation were communicated to the spirit of man by the Spirit of God, the analogies employed would be the best suited for conveying the nearest approximation to the divine truths.-11. That there is no evidence, nor any grounds of antecedent certainty possessed by man, either that a miraculous revelation is impossible, or that it cannot receive a miraculous attestation.–12. That we have no grounds of antecedent certainty to guide us as to the nature or degree of inspiration with which a revelation would be communicated.-13. But that the inspiration afforded would not be a greater degree of inspiration than that which was necessary for the effectuating the purposes of God in communicating a revelation.-14. That such truths as God has already communicated by natural means, and which he has already given man the power to discover for himself, would not form the proper subject-matter of a supernatural revelation.-15. That, according to analogies of God's conduct in creation and providence, inspiration would be confined to the proper subject matter of the revelation itself, and would not be extended to mere collateral matter connected with the revelation.–16. That reasonings founded ou certain human views of the Divine attributes as to what a revelation must contain, or what must be the mode of its delivery, are no less fallacious than similar reasonings have proved as to the great facts of creation and providence.-17. That not only is there no antecedent presumption against the existence of a human element in a revelation, but the analogies of God's operations in creation and providence would lead us to infer the presence of such an element in every revelation of which the Creator and Preserver of the universe is the author.- 18. That various assumptions which have been made respecting the extent of a divine revelation, and respecting the mode in which it must have been communicated, rest upon no solid basis of truth, but on mere probable grounds of belief; and when such probabilities are applied as exponents of God's works in creation and providence, they totally fail us as guides to truth.”

The following chapter, the sixth, is designed to prove the theory of verbal inspiration contrary to the mode of the Creator's acting in creation and providence. This view accords with the next propositions :That the incarnation is the great objective manifestation of Deity to the finite mind; and that the person of Christ exhibits the highest form of inspiration. This view of our Lord leads to a consideration of the nature of his knowledge as derived from the inspiration of the Spirit, and the two recorded limitations of that knowledge. Then come under review the nature of apostolic inspiration ; spiritual gifts as its source; and its limits. After this the inspiration of the Gospels is examined at length; their inspiration is asserted to be real, but not verbal, and its nature is investigated. The facts of the Gospels shew that Jesus was no mythic creation, that the miracles were not mythic, and that the Gospels themselves are not mythic; at the same time they shew that the writers were not the subjects of verbal inspiration. The inspiration of the apostles is next investigated at length; they were gradually enlightened in the great truths of the Christian revelation which they were inspired to communicate; and a human element is to be discovered in their writings. A chapter is devoted to the results of the foregoing inquiries on existing theories of inspiration. The theory of verbal inspiration is viewed as dangerous to Christianity itself. The last chapter of the book aims to prove the Christ of the Gospels no creation of the unassisted powers of the human mind.

Our space does not permit us to discuss the system of the work of which we have given a meagre outline. The author writes calmly, firmly, and intelligently, and his book is one which is really valuable, and deserves to be carefully studied.


The Redeemer. Discourses by EDMOND DE PRESSENSE, D.D. With

an Introduction by William LINDSAY ALEXANDER, D.D. Edin

burgh: T. and T. Clark. We are very glad to see this work in an English dress. Although written ten years since it is peculiarly seasonable, and those who have not read it in French will be pleased to make its acquaintance. The translation seems to be remarkably well done, and it reads pleasantly and smoothly, but without sacrificing the masculine vigour and precision of the original. The book is, moreover, handsomely got up. But it has higher recommendations. M. De Pressensé is a close and accurate thinker, and a man accustomed to take broad and comprehensive views of things. It is not easy to mistake his meaning, and even if we sometimes feel a difficulty in accepting it, we can seldom say it is unsupported by reasons, or is so much mere assertion. The author's faith is profound, and yet discriminating and intelligent. His acquaintance with the Scriptures is very extensive, and equalled only by the wide range of his knowledge of ancient and modern literature. The subjects discoursed upon cover the whole field of revelation. Commencing with the Fall and the Promise, he passes on to develope his favourite views of the preparation for the coming of Jesus Christ.


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These preparations he finds, before Judaism, in Judaism, and even in Paganism. He then treats of the nature of Christ as God-man, of his plan, and of his holiness. Then viewing him as a prophet he considers his teaching, and the evidence afforded by Scripture and miracles, as well as internal proof. Under the head of Christ a Sacrifice, he considers first the early part of His ministry, and next the agony and

The last discourse is on Jesus Christ a King. Such are the topics of these discourses, which abound in striking, and even magnificent passages, fully justifying the remark of Dr. Alexander, who calls him “one of the most eloquent preachers in Paris," and, he might have said, in France. Indeed, we know no French Protestant preacher who is at once his equal in intellect, learning, and eloquence. We do not disparage the French Catholics when we express our belief that they have not a preacher who can approach him. Although belonging to what is called a community of “dissidents," M. De Pressensé is a man of large and liberal heart, and he freely devotes himself to the common cause of God and truth. It is gratify ing to know that traditionalism, and neologianism, and infidelity, have such an opponent in a country which is, as heretofore, so prone to vagaries in the matter of religion. Let any one read this book, and then take up what M. Renan has called his “ Christ in white marble," and he will soon see who comes nearest to the Scripture representations. We have no “ Christ in white marble" here, but a living, loving, divine Christ, foreshadowed in the Old Testament, and manifested in the New as the God-man, the Prophet, the Saviour, and the King of men. Upon this glorious person no shadow is thrown, but He came "to accomplish the desire of salvation, to reconcile man with God, to offer the sacrifice of redemption, to fulfil the promises." He is not left, like the “Christ in white marble," lifeless and cold at the sepulchre, but followed to "the throne of glory where he took his seat after his resurrection, and whither he draws us by his Spirit." No wonder that, instead of the plaintive strains with which M. Renan concludes, the closing sentences of M. De Pressensé are earnest, and practical, and even jubilant. The Christ of the mere scholar and littérateur may astonish and even perplex men for a time, but it is the Christ of the Bible, the Christ of faith, who alone has power to win and hold the empire of true hearts.

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The History of Our Lord, as Exemplified in Works of Art: with that

of His Types, St. John the Baptist, and other persons of the Old and New Testament. Commenced by the late Mrs. Jameson; continued and completed by Lady EASTLAKE. In 2 vols. London :

Longmans. “Daily shall He be praised," says the Psalmist, and the prediction has been in many ways accomplished. The artists of all Christian ages, at least, have vied with one another in their endeavours to honour the Redeemer of men. Strange and quaint, not to say fanciful, as

many of their devices are, their endeavours to honour the Saviour by works of art have been incessant and innumerable. The person of Christ has had a wonderful charm and fascination for them, and they have lavished upon it all the resources of their art. The humble artists of the catacombs, and the more pretentious ones of the Byzantine and other mediæval schools, were succeeded by the great masters of more modern times. Unequal as their works are, they are all a testimony to the heartfelt yearning of the Church to do honour to Christ, and to set forth His grace and glory. The fact is one which cannot be denied, and we are under great obligations to the taste and talent of the ladies who have produced these beautiful volumes, for supplying us with illustrations of that fact. Their diligence and zeal have not been contented with giving us the direct and actual representations of the Saviour in almost every aspect, but have collected a great number of artistic designs which set forth typical and other resemblances. There are more than three hundred of these illustrations in the two volumes, and they have been selected with much tact and judgment, so that almost every class is represented. The artists who have produced the engravings have displayed remarkable ability. The letter-press, too, is, in all respects, executed in a most praiseworthy manner. Altogether, we look upon this as a very beautiful and instructive work, and one thé attractions of which are destined to be permanent. The information conveyed respecting various designs, and the places where they are preserved, is immense. This is shewn at any opening of the book, and is still further proved by the list of painters, engravers, and sculptors appended to the second volume, as well as by the index to the different depositaries to which reference bas been made. The field actually covered by the subjects treated of extends from the fall of Lucifer and the creation to the final judgment. The designs are typical and allegorical, historical and prophetic, as well as purely traditional and symbolical. The free introduction of illustrations from the Old and New Testaments, even where our Lord does not appear to be so much as indirectly alluded to, almost justifies us in calling this “ Scripture history as exemplied in works of art.” The personal history of Christ may be said to commence with the murder of the Innocents (vol. I., 259); other incidents connected with His birth and early years having been already anticipated by Mrs. Jameson, in her Legendary Art and Legends of the Madonna. Still, in the accounts of the Innocents, the Saviour does not appear, and this work first presents him in his earthly life as an infant in the arms of Joseph (I., 273), and next when disputing with the doctors (p. 279).

We are necessarily precluded from giving specimens of what these volumes were written for, and we cannot undertake to criticise the pictorial illustrations as might be done in a scientific journal. We have already expressed our hearty approval of the selection of subjects, and of the artistic and literary execution of the work. We may add, that the observations introduced into the text are generally very appropriate, and made with the confidence which becomes those whose know

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