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Meat, drink, and woman too, in great variety,
A fact of universal notoriety.
I never ordered you to fast or pray,

I never bid you cut each other's throats;
To see you happy, frolicsome and gay,

Is more to me than blood of bulls and goats;
I'm devilish low, my friends, in cash to day,

Or else I'd really give you all new coats,
Made from my lainb-he's feeding in the dairy
Attended by his mother, Lady Mary.
Children farewell? don't let me smell again,

The stink of incense or of sacrifice;
Fear not that I shall quench in fire or rain,

Those who may look too much in woman's eyes;
“ Drink and be merry”—all the rest is vain,

So say the learned and the truly wise,
“ Greet one another with an huly kiss,"
“ And bother me no more!"-enough of this.

G. W. GRADDONS.

At a Meeting of the Friends of Free Discussion, in Sheffield, to commemorate the birth of the Iminortal Paine, the following Toasts were drank, several songs sung, and the evening spent with the greatest hilarity.

1. The Immortal Memory of Thomas Paine--the disinterested advocate of Republican governments.

2. The Sovereignty of the people.
3. The Liberty of the Press, and its fearless supporters.

4. The Rights of Man. May we all know them : and never want the spirit to assert them.

5. Richard Carlile and his fearless assistants, the successful Advocates of Free Discussion.

6. The Republicans of every country, and may they soon shake hands over the Grave of the last of Tyrants.

7. The Menory of the murdered Reformers of Manchester, and the brave but unfortunate Riego.

8. The Memory of Major Cartwright, Walter Fawkes, and Thomas Rawson, the undeviating advocates of Parliamentary Reform.

9. Lord Cochrane, M. La Fayette, Bolivar, and the Republicans of North and South America.

10. Prosperity and perpetuity to the Sheffield Paine Meeting. Day it contiuue to rise on the ruins of the Pitt Club.

11. Wm. Todd, with thanks for his gratuitous advertisement of our Meeting, may it be the omen of his return to his long abandoned Republican principles.

12. May the Sun never rise on the palace of a Tyrant vor set on the cottage of a slave.

13. The Memory of General Washington, Dr. Franklin, and their brave associates, who fought for and obtained the Independence of North America.

14. The cause for which Wallace bled and Washington fought and conquered.

15. The Golden Bill of Peel, for the resumption of Cash Payments : may it speedily be carried into effect.

i6. When Rulers cease to do justice, may the People cease to obey.

17. May “ Common SENSE." induce. the Aristocracy to throw aside the nonsense of Title and Kank and claim no superiority, but that whicla their virtues and talents may give then,

The company separated at 12 o'Clock highly pleased with their entertainment.

TO MR. HOLMES, FARGATE.

If you want a correct likeness of the Devil, sit for your own. Every one will allow that the child is the exact image of his father. You may then keep your money in your pocket.

W. V. HOLMES IN ANSWER.

I feel the force of your compliment, and will acknowledge that I am a devil to the Christians. I am, however, sorry that

you should be too late with your suggestion, as I have found a correct likeness in the person of the Rev. Thomas Sutton, Vicar of Sheffield.

ABEL BYWATER !

We have, at length, an autograph of Abel's! Which the reader shall have copied verbatim et literatim with its little bit of Latin.

TO WILLIAM HOLMES.

Most learned Sir, I must of course think myself highly honoured, that my eforts are noticed by men of your rank and talent. 'I love to tickle the great. But Sir, I am sorry you should have put yourself to so much trouble on my account, and you must please to pardon my ingra:itude, for I committed your cobbling production to the flames before I had read one third. For in the first place I discovered a palpable falsehood; and in the second place a misconstruction of the term made. Now, Sir, if you had had the discernment of a child you might have perceived that figure, could only be meant there; but I think you must have been born in a mist, for your brain is so very foggy that you are not able to distinguish between sound reason and nonsense. however, I have to inform both you and your brethren that I shall not receive any letters by post,

and if any may come in the same way that your nondescript came, I shall take the trouble to send them back as fast as they come, for I am wearied of your trash and am convinced of the truth of an assertion of my friend Pearce, that the moment a man becomes an Atheist he becomes a fool; and to argue with fools is madness.

For ever farewell,
Stultus Rudis,*

A. B. • Lest the uulearned readers should not be able to translate these two words and thus know what A. B. signs himself, I will, for their benefit, give the meaning of them, as I find it in the latin dictionary, stultus, foolish, unwise, simple, silly, sottish, unadvised ; rudis, new, fresh, unwrought, rude, ignorant, unskilful, untaught, not exercised or trained.

W. V. H.

TO ABEL BYWATER, SHEFFIELD PARK.

Most CLASSICAL SI I RECIEVED your very erudite epistle, and felt so pleased at the contents, that I resolved to use my endeavours to raise your fame, by giving it to the public, as I know you are fond of seeing your productions in print. Your epistle is so far from being cobbled, that to have committed it to the flames, would have been an injury to mankind. I, however, believe that you would have been very happy to have been sure, when you dropped mine into the fire, that it was the only copy in existence, as then it could not have risen again, as it now does, to torment, you. As to the “palpable falsehood;" as you fail to point it out, it rests with your other unsupported assertions, and is a proof of your wish to draw the attention of your readers from the point at issue. The misconstruction is a different thing. I am careful when writing against any of your brethren, to use their own words, lest they should charge me with misrepre. sentation. I am not certain whether I was born in a mist; but I will allow, that, when I have read any thing of yours, I am so mystified with it, that I cannot distinguish a spark of sound reason in it. You, perhaps, issue them as nonsense and are therefore surprised that I should suppose they were meant for sound reason. Do not be afraid, I will not trouble you with any more of my writing; but I can reach you by means of the press, and that will vex you much more. The assertion of your friend is like all other assertions in want of arguments to support it; and if it is madness to argue with fools: why, in the name of sense, do you keep your pen so codstantly at work, in attempting to argue? You advise your friend to let atheism alone, and yet you are acting continually in opposition to yonr own advice. The fact is, you feel the weakness of your system, and are therefore using every means to prop it.

To be serious on the subject: I will engage to answer and refute every argument that you can bring in favour of all or any of the following three propositious.

The existence of a being distinct from matter.
The existence of a soul in man distinct from body.
The existence of such a person as Jesus Christ.

You shall print your statements, and I, in return, will print inine ; and the public shall judge between us.

W. V. IIOLMES.

JOHN STEWART.

The following is the first of a series of Lectures, delivered by the above individual to the people of New York. I am not aware that they have been before printed, as my copies are the original manuscripts of the author, which he left in the possession of his friend, my friend, and every man's friend, Mr. John Fellows, of New York, from whom I have lately received them. The subject is the science of the mind; and though the style of the Lecturer is not the most plain and agreeable, it is to be excused by the depth and originality of his ideas, and the difficulties which attend the developement of every new science, arising from the necessity of constructing new words and terms for its novelties.

John Stewart is better known as the WALKING STEWART. He travelled through all passable parts of the earth, and much'of that on foot. He was the first man, of whose writings I have any knowledge, who avowed himself a scientific Materialist, and who openly rejected the dogma of an intelligent God and of Spiritualism. As I purpose, in the course of a few months, to publish a collection of his works, I shall feel obliged, if any friend, who can, will give me information, as to the man, or his writings. Of his Lectures and Discourses, delivered in New York, I have near twenty, one of which will successively follow in successive Numbers of “The Republican."

R. C.

LECTURE I.

The subject of my first Lecture will be to explain the nature and mechanism of the

human mind, (as discoverable in its action, independent of its essence) to shew the extent of its powers in ideas of knowledge or sentiments of imagination ; the first limited by observation and experience to form the matter and measure of intelligence---the latter governed by the rules of analogy to direct the influence of conjecture and opinion, projecting beyond experience, and limited by conceivability.

ON THE NATURE AND MECHANISM OF THE MIND, COGNOSCIBLE

AND ANENABLE TO EXPERIENCE, IN ITS ACTION, AND NOT

IN ESSENCE.

I shall be careful to avoid the perpetual error of all previous psychologists, or mental philosophers, viz. the neglect of phenomena or effects in a vain research of incognoscible causes. The knowledge of any thing may be thus defined :-Human intelligence operating upon the mere phenomena or appearances

of things in their means and ends, as far as they are useful in the

No. 6. VOL. XIII.

purposes of human life, or amenable to the experience of the

senses.

I shall illustrate this definition by adverting to the object or thing called the sun, and the action of intellect thereon, as what is meant by the word knowledge. When the object sun presents itself to the external five senses in its phenomena of heat, light, motion, figure, and distance; the internal sixth sense, by means of its organ, the brain, which is a branch of the nervous system, reproduces all the externally impressed phenomena, and forms what is called the idea, notion, or knowledge of the sun.

These notions, ideas, or knowledge, in all their modifications, are preserved and reproduced by niemory in the order of their phenomena, as thus:- I remember the lens and its phenomena to have a certain harmonising relation with the rays of the sun, and then bringing them into co-operation, I light my fire, and dress my dinner, without any regard to the incognoscible modes of the elementary causes of fire produced by the rays and the lens. in the same manner, recollecting the phenomena of transparent glass and the sun's rays in their relative action, I make windows in my house, and enjoy all the benefit of light, without regarding the elementary causes of its action to produce its utility. Again, I recollect the phenomena of the sun's change in position, and that in the spring season, and the phenomena of cultivation, as ploughing and sowing, by which correlative actions of moral and physical force 1 produce a harvest; without waiting to inquire whether the elementary causes proceed from fire in the sun's body, or refraction of its rays in the atmosphere. Such action of mind upon the phenomena of things amenable to experience, is all that is meant by knowledge, and marks the boundary of intellectual power in cognition, because experience is as necessary a medium to the action of intelligence as light to that of vision. Such is the knowledge I now propose to give you of the human mind, that is, to mark all the phenomena of its action as communicated to every man's sensational experience, without any hypothesis of causation, as nervous fluids, vibratory fibres, or the unmeaning word spirit. The mind of man is the attribute or result of a certain modification of matter, or organic members, called body.

This body, with its complicate organism, modifies itself into thought, just as the sun modifies its matter into heat and light; and there is nothing more wonderful that a ray of the sun should modify itself into a maggot or a gem, than that the nerves of the stomach should modify themselves into the desire of hunger. This operation of the stomach, if profoundly considered, will be of itself sufficient evidence to do away all that mystic logomachy of metaphysics which has drawn an impenetrable veil of darkness over the study of man. The vacuity of the stomach, for want of food, produces an irritation in its nervous fibres which modify the desire of thirst and hunger in what is called the sensorium, or

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