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supplied by allusions in his dedication, xix; notice of the Lady Agnesina,

Duchess of Albi and Tagliacozzo, to whom he dedicates, xix ; Ramusio's

preface has no information, and his edition a third-hand version, xxi;

particulars derivable with more or less certainty from the narrative

itself, xxii ; his motives for travelling, xxiii ; character of his narrative,

xxiii; scanty recompense, xxiv.

Date of his leaving Europe, xxv; remarks on his notices of Cairo and

Egypt under the Mamlūks, ib.; Syria and Damascus, xxvi ; his enrol-

ment as a Mamlûk, and reserve as to his profession of Islâm, his Mus-

sulman name (Yûnas or Jonah), and his knowledge of Muhammedanism,

xxvi; remarks on such conformity to Islamism, xxvii; he joins the Hajj

Caravan from Damascus, ib.; the only European who has reached Meccah
by that route, xxvii ; his sketches of the desert and Bedâwîn, xxviii ; his
notice of a colony of Jews near El-Medinah, and the fact authenticated,
ib.; his description of El-Medînah and correction of fables about Muham-
med's coffin, xxix; his journey on to Meccah, xxx; his notice of the
politics of the time confirmed by Arabic authorities, the Kurrat El-
Ayûn and Ruih er-Ruăh, XXX-XXXV; his account of Meccah, its visitors,
holy places, and ceremonies, xxxV; wonderful truth of his descriptions,

as confirmed incidentally by Burckhardt and expressly by Burton, xxxvi.

Varthema escapes to Juddah from the Caravan, xxxvi-vii ; his voyage down

the Red Sea and arrival at Aden, xxxviii; suspected as a Christian spy

and imprisoned, and sent to the Sultan of southern Yemen at Radāä,

xxxix; corroboration of a part of Varthema's story here from the nar-

ratives of Portuguese acts of piracy at this time, xxxix-xli; outline

of the contemporary politics of Yemen from Arabic authorities, xli—xliv,

and incidental corroboration of Varthema's narrative, xliv; intervention

of one of the Sultan's wives in Varthema's favour, and his pretended

madness, xlv; morality of the harîm, ib.; Varthema obtains leave to

visit Aden, where he engages a passage to India, and spends the interval

before its departure on an excursion through Yemen, xlvi; he is the first

European traveller who has described that country, and scarcely any but

Niebuhr have followed, xlvi ; abstract of his route, xlvii ; returns to Aden,
embarks, runs for Africa and visits Zaila and Berbera; truth of his de
scriptions, xlviii ; circumstantial evidence of the season at which this
voyage was made, xlix ; Varthema crosses the Indian ocean to Diu in
Guzerat; thence to Gogo; and thence westward to Julfår in the Per-
sian Gulf, Máskat, and Hormuz, l; notices of Hormuz and its his-
tory, 1, li.

Varthema's visit to Eri or Herat, lii; difficulty about his " large and fine

river;" Shiraz, liii ; his meeting with a Persian merchant “Cozazionor,”

who becomes his travelling companion; advantages of this to Varthema,

liv; they start for Samarcand, but are turned back by the Sufi's perse-

cution of the Shi’äs; confirmation of this from history, lv,lvi; Cozazionor
proposes to give Varthema his niece in marriage, lvii; they reach Hormuz
and embark for India, arriving at Cheo or Jooah on the Indus; they
reach Cambay, lviii ; truth of particulars regarding it.
Political state of Western India at this period, lvii ; accession to the

throne of Guzerat of Mahmûd Shah, surnamed Bigarrah, who reigned
during Varthema's visit, lix; Mussulman kingdom of the Deccan, its
vicissitudes and subdivision ; 'Adil Shảh of Bijapur, Varthema's “ King
of Deccan,” lx; the Brahminical kingdom of Bijayanagar; Ramraj of
that state, Varthema's “King of Narsinga,” lxi; Rajah of Cannanore;
kingdom of the Zamuri Rajah or Zamorin, lxii ; history of his pre-
eminence as given by the Portuguese; Quilon, lxiii; Chayl; kingdom
of Bengal under the Purbi sultâns.
Varthema's account of the Jains and the Joghis, lxiv; his description of

Sultan Mahmûd's mustachioes confirmed by the Mussulman historians.
Varthema's journey along the coast, inland to Bijapûr and back to the
coast, and so to Cannanore, lxv; his abstinence from communication
with the Portuguese already established there; visit to Bijayanagâr,
and remarks on his notices of the coinage; return to the coast and
journey along it to Calicut, lxvi; fullness, truth, and originality of his
descriptions of manners and peculiarities here, of the distinctions of

castes and singular marriage customs, lxvii; remarks upon these.
Varthema and his companion quit Calicut by the Backwaters, for Kayan-

Kulam and Colon or Quilon, lxix ; thence to Chayl; position of the
latter; city of Cioromandel, lxx, probably Negapatam; their visit to
Ceylon; they proceed to Paleachet or Pulicat, lxxi; remarks suggested
by the narrative as to the freedom of trade, and protection of foreign
traders in India in those days, lxxi; many subordinate ports then fre-
quented even by foreign vessels are now abandoned and have disap-
peared from the maps, lxxii; causes of the greater commercial centraliza-
tion of the present day, and doubts whether the improvement of access

to the old intermediate ports would not have been attended by better

results ; general prosperity which seems to have prevailed, and for which

a much less equal distribution of property has now been substituted;

impartial administration of justice in old India ; the comparative costli-

ness and tardiness of our system ; humorous story in illustration related

by an Arab merchant, lxxiv.

Sketch of the political geography of the Transgangetic Peninsula, lxxvi;

Pegu, Siam, Ava, and Toungoo; the various kingdoms of Sumatra ;

Moors” and “ Pagans;" Java, lxxvii; sovereigns of the farther islands

visited by Varthema.

The travellers sail from Pulicat to Tarnassari or Tenasserim, lxxviii;

truthful features of the description ; Varthema's notice of the Hornbill,

lxxix ; of extraordinary marriage usages; voyage to the “city of Ban-

ghella,” lxxx; discussion as to the whereabouts of the city so indicated,

with various quotations ; wealth and abundance of products, lxxxii;

meeting with Christians from the city of Sarnau, and probable identifi-

cation of that place, from passage in Odorico; remarks on the interest-

ing character of Fra Odorico's narrative, lxxxiii ; these Christians advised

Varthema's companion to visit Pegu with them, lxxxiv; description of
Pegu, lxxxv; Varthema's statement about the existence of Christians

there, lxxxv; interview with the King of Pegu, lxxxvi.

Departure for Malacca, lxxxvii; “Great River,” viz. Straits of Malacca,

Ixxxvii ; character of the place and people, and corroboration of Var-

thema's narrative; Sumatra, lxxxviii; questions raised by the text

regarding coins and silk in that island; voyage to the Spice Islands

undertaken, xc; this part of the route never previously recorded by any

European, but it would be rash to say never travelled, xci; the Nutmeg

or Banda Islands ; Monoch or the Moluccas; which of the latter did

Varthema visit ? xcii; visit to Borneo, the part not determined, xciii ;

curious particulars as to appliances for navigation, xciv; the Southern

Cross, xcv; and stories heard of apparentlyantarctic regions,xcv; curiosity

of the Sarnau Christians about Western Christendom; this may have

awakened Varthema's desires for home and the abandonment of his

false profession, xcvi; arrival at Java ; a plea for the account of it

given by Varthema against Mr. Crawfurd's condemnation; mutilated

children, xcvii.

Return to Malacca and thence to Negapatam, and Calicut, xcviii; the

two Milanese gun-founders; Varthema's appearance as a physician, and
as Imâm; his journey to Cannanore and escape into the Portuguese

garrisou, xcix.

Varthema present at the sea fight off Cannanore, c; employed as factor

at Cochin ; in the attack on Ponani; his knighthood; remarks on the

fanaticism and violence of the Portuguese.
Varthema finally quits India, ci; remarks on the rapid growth of the

Portuguese power in the East, and its rapid decay, cii; their religious
conquests have survived their temporal sovereignty, ciii; success of
Roman Catholic mission in India greater than that of the Reformed
churches, civ; remarks of Heber quoted.

Mozambique, cvi; summary of history of the Muhammedan settlements

on the coast of Eastern Africa from Krapf, cvii; the Portuguese rule

and its fall, cviii; inscription over the gateway of Mombasa; rise of the

'Ammân Seyyeds of Máskat and Zanzibar, cx; Varthema's inland excur-

sion at Mozambique, and the illustration it affords of the dealings of the

civilized with the uncivilized, cxi.

Varthema's arrival in Europe, and conclusion of his narrative, cxii.

The Editor's acknowledgments to various gentlemen, cxiü.

POSTSCRIPT. On the site of the ancient city of Bengala.

Further evidence as to the existence of Bengala as a city and port distinct

from Satgong and Chittagong, cxiv; some authors, however, mention the

two latter and not Bengala, cxvii ; abstract of the data as to these three

cities afforded by the principal old maps in the British Museum, cxix;

Bengala appears for the last time in 1740; the site of Bengala, and its

probable destruction by the river as supposed by Rennell, cxx.

Advantages of Travel, from the Arabic.

buried, 26-28.

The mosque described ; books of Mahomet and his Companions, 26;

tombs of Mahomet, Haly, Babacher, Othman, Aumar, and Fatoma,

27; dissensions of Mahometan sectaries, 28.

Chapter concerning the Temple and Sepulchre of Mahomet and

his Companions, 28-31.

Superior of the Mosque tries to trick the caravan, 28; Varthema's

Arabic, 29; pretended supernatural illumination of the sepulchre, 30;

no truth about the loadstone, 31.

Pilots of the caravan, 31 ; well of St. Mark, 32; sea of sand (which

should have been mentioned before the Jews' mountain) and its

dangers, 33 ; remarkable mountain and grotto, 34; two fights with

Arabs; arrival at Mecca; four brothers fighting for the lordship

thereof, 35.

Chapter showing how Mecca is constructed, and why the Moors

go to Mecca, 35.37.

Description of Mecca, 35; its governors ; caravan enters the city, 36 ;

barrenness round the city renders it dependent for food on foreign

parts, 37.

Chapter concerning the merchandize in Mecca, 38.

Chapter concerning the pardoning in Mecca, 38-41.

The Great Temple or Mosque described, 38; the tower (El-Käaba), 39;

the well, 40; ceremonies performed by the pilgrims, 41.

Chapter concerning the manner of the sacrifices in Mecca, 42-46.

Sacrifices of sheep at a mountain; poor pilgrims, 42; discourse of the


returns to Mecca; stone-throwing, and legend of its origin, 44;

doves of Mecca, 45.

Chapter concerning the unicorns in the Temple of Mecca, not very

common in other places, 46-49.

Chapter concerning some occurrences between Mecca and Zida, a

port of Mecca, 49-52.

Varthema recognized as a European by a certain Moor, 49; but pro-

fesses to be a Mahometan convert, 50; the Moor conceals him in his

house, and the Damascus caravan departs, 51; whilst Varthema goes

with another caravan to Zida (Juddah), 52.

Chapter concerning Zida, the port of Mecca, and of the Red

Sea, 52-54.

Zida described; Varthema hides in a mosque, 52; agrees with a

ship-master going to Persia, and sails, 54.

Chapter showing why the Red Sea is not navigable, 54.

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