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pleased. On the following day he had neither fever nor pain in his head or stomach, and, after that, he was relieved several times.

The next morning, he said that he felt pain in his side. I made him take cow or buffalo butter and anoint himself and bind himself up with hemp tow, and then I told him that if he wished to be cured he must eat twice a day, and before eating, I wished him to walk a mile on foot. He replied : “ O nonal irami tino biria biria gnancia tu poi,"

you do not wish me to eat more than twice in the day, I shall be dead very soon;" for they eat eight or ten times a day. This order appeared to him very severe. However, at last he was very well cured, and this gained great credit for my hypocrisy. They said that I was the friend of God. This merchant wished to give me ten ducats, but I would not receive anything. I even gave three ducats which I had to the poor, and this I did publicly in order that they might know that I did not want any property or money. From this time forward happy was he who could take me to his house to eat, happy was he who kissed my hands and feet; and when anyone kissed my hands, I kept my ground steadily, giving him to understand that he did an act which I deserved, as being a saint. But it was my companion above all who procured me credit, because he also believed me, and said that I did not eat flesh, and that he had seen me at Mecca, and at the body of Mahomet, and that I had always travelled in his company, and that he knew my manners, and that I was truly a saint, and that, knowing me to be of a good and holy life, he had given me one of his nieces for my wife, so that, in this way every man wished me well, and every night I went secretly to talk with the Christians, who told me, on one occasion, that twelve Portuguese ships had come to Canonor. Then I said, now is the time for me to escape from the hands of dogs, and we considered together for eight days in what manner I could escape. They advised me to escape by land, but I had not the courage, through the fear that I might be killed by the Moors, I being white and they black.

THE CHAPTER CONCERNING THE NEWS OF THE SHIPS

OF THE PORTUGUESE WHICH CAME IN TO CALICUT.

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One day, while eating with my companion, two Persian merchants of Canonor arrived, whom he immediately called to eat with him. They answered: “We have no wish to eat and bring bad news.” We asked them: “What words are these which you utter ?” They said : “ Twelve ships of the Portuguese have arrived, which we have seen with our eyes.” My companion asked : “ What people are they?” The Persians replied: “ They are Christians, and are all armed in white arms, and they have commenced building a very strong castle in Canonor.” My companion turned to me and asked me: “O Iunus, what people are these Portuguese?” I answered him : “Do not speak to me of such a race, for they are all thieves and corsairs of the sea, and I should like to see them all of our Mohammedan faith.” Hearing this he became very malignant, and I rejoiced much in my heart.

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1 This must have been towards the end of 1506, and that inference is confirmed by the date, 3rd December, given in the chapter succeeding the next. In note 2 on pp. 123-4 anie, I have delayed the building of the fort at Cannanore till 1507 : it was not probably completed till the beginning of that year, for when he reached that place Varthema says: "il castello si faceva.” The ships mentioned in the text were undoubtedly part of the fleet of Don Francisco de Almeyda, who arrived at Cannanore about this time, and received the Rajah’s permission to erect the fort in the harbour.

THE CHAPTER SHOWING HOW THE MOORS SUMMON TO THE CHURCH THOSE WHO ARE OF THEIR SECT

AND FAITH.

On the following day all the Moors, having heard the news, went to the mosque to say their prayers. But first some, deputed to this office, mounted the tower of their church, as is the custom amongst them three or four times a day, and, instead of bells, began with a loud voice to call the others to this same prayer, keeping one finger constantly in their ear and saying: “ Alla u eccubar, Alla u eccubar, aialassale aialassale aialalfale aialalfale Alla u eccubar leilla illala esciadu ana Mahometh resullala,"l that is, “God is great, God is great, come to the church, come to the church, come to praise God, come to praise God, God is great, God is great, God was, God will be, Mahometh the messenger of God will rise again.” And they took me also with them, saying to me that they wished to pray to God for the Moors; and so they set me publicly to make the prayer, which you shall hear, which prayer is as common with them as the Pater Noster is with us, and the Ave Maria. The Moors stand all in a row ; but there are many rows, and they have a priest as we have, who, after they have well washed, begins to pronounce the prayer in this manner, saying : gibilei nimi saithan e regin bizimilei erachman erachinal hamdulile ara blaharami erachman erachin malichi iaum edmi iachie nabudu hiachie nesta himi edina sarathel mostachina ledina ana antha alyhin gayril magdubin alehy

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i Allahu ákbar! Allahu úkbar ! Hie 'ala 's-salâ ! Hie 'ala 's-salů ! Hie 'ala 'l-falâh ! Hie 'ala 'l-falâh! Allâhu úkbar ! La ilâh illa Allah ; wa-ash-hadna Muhammed rasul Allah. God is most Great ! God is most Great ! Come to prayer ! Come to prayer ! Come to security! Come to security! There is no god but the God, and I testify that Muhammed is God's Apostle! This is the ordinary adhûn or call to prayer, chaunted by the mūádh-dhin from the minaret of the mosque.

himu ualla da lim amin alla u eccubar." And so I

pronounced the prayer in the presence of all the people, and then I returned home with my companion. On the next day I pretended to be very ill, and remained about eight days wherein I would not eat with him, but every night I went to eat with the two Christians. He (my companion] was very much surprised, and asked me why I would not eat. I replied: "That I felt very ill, and my head felt as though it were very large and full; and I said to him that it appeared to me that it proceeded from that air, that it was not good for me.” He, for the singular affection which he bore me, would have done everything to please me; wherefore, hearing that the air of Calicut was injurious to me, he said to me:

“Go and stay in Canonor until we return to Persia, and I will direct you to a friend of mine, who will give you all that you require.” I answered him : “ That I would gladly go to Canonor, but I hesitated because of those Christians.” Do not hesitate," said he, "nor have any fear of them, for you shall remain constantly in the city.” Finally, having well seen all the fleet which was preparing in Calicut, and all the artillery, and the army which had been raised against the Christians, I set out on my journey to give them notice of it, and to save myself from the hands of dogs.

THE CIIAPTER CONCERNING THE FLIGHT FROM CALICUT.

One day, before I set out, I arranged all that I had to do with the two Christians, and then my companion placed me in the company of those two Persians who carried the news

i This is a tolerably correct wording, very badly spelt, of the Fatihah, or opening chapter of the Korân, preceded by the common formula of renunciation, “I abbor the lapidated Devil.” (See note 2 on p. 45 ante.) Varthema, on this occasion, appears to have acted the part of Imům and led the prayers of the congregation.

of the Portuguese, and we took a little bark. Now, you will understand in what danger I placed myself, because there were twenty-four Persian, Syrian, and Turkish merchants, all of whom knew me, and bore me great affection, and knew well what the genius of Christians was. I feared that if I took leave of them, they would think that I wanted to escape to the Portuguese. If I departed without speaking with them, and I was by chance discovered, they would have said to me: “Why did you not speak to us?” And this I balanced in my mind. However, I determined to go without speaking to any one excepting my companion. On Thursday morning, the third of September, I set out with the two Persians by sea, and when we had got about a bowshot in the sea, four Naeri came to the sea-shore, who called the captain of the vessel, and we immediately returned to land. The Naeri said to the captain : “Why do you carry away this man without leave of the king ?” The Persians answered : “ This man is a Moorish saint, and we are going to Canonor." “ We know well,” said the Naeri, “ that he is a Moorish saint, but he understands the language of the Portuguese, and will tell them all that we are doing here, because a great fleet is being got ready;" and they ordered the captain of the ship that he should not take me away on any account, and he acted accordingly. We remained on the sea-shore, and the Naeri returned to the king's house. One of the Persians said : “Let us go to our house," that is, to Calicut. I answered: “Do not go, for you will lose these fine sinabaph(which were pieces of cloth we carried), because you have not paid the king's dues.” The other Persians said: “O sir, what shall we do?” I replied: “Let us go along this shore until we find a parao," that is, a small bark ; and they were pleased so to do, and we took our way for twelve miles, always by land, laden with the said goods. You may imagine how my heart felt,

! See note 2 on p. 212 ante.

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