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as to perceive that the room was large and empty; but did not examine it further, and, among the multitude of similar phenomena, we made no note of it. Messrs. W. and T. explored it, and found an apartment thirty feet by twentyfive. "On the eastern and southern sides have been cut deep channels, the former seven and the latter four feet wide, separated by a small strip of the rock, in which a narrow passage has been cut. The remainder of the apartment consists of the natural rock, cut into broad steps or offsets, leading down to the eastern channel; a portion of the rock remaining in the middle as a support. The whole apartment was stuccoed. We were at a loss to assign its use; but concluded it to have been a bath." It is difficult, however, to see what a bath could have to do in connexion with the Tomb of Helena; and just as difficult to give any other probable explanation of the purpose of this chamber.
Tombs of the Prophets.-These tombs on the Mount of Olives were not visited by us, but are briefly described in the Researches (Vol. I. p. 539) from the accounts of Doubdan and Pococke. Mr. Wolcott furnishes the following description of them.
"The entrance to these tombs is through a hole in the rock above, into a circular, apartment, about twenty feet in diameter; a side entrance to which is blocked up. Two passages lead from it, (and a third appears to have been walled up,) extending thirty feet each, in a direct line. Between them run two galleries in concentric curves, one at their extreme end, the other in the middle. When free from rubbish, they are about ten feet high and six broad, arched and stuccoed. The outer gallery is 115 feet in length, and contains the niches, thirty-two in number, extending outwards on the level of its floor, on the further side. Two small chambers open into it, containing half a dozen niches. A narrow excavation leading from the most northern passage, terminates at the distance of more than one hundred feet, in a clayey, friable soil; which is perhaps the reason that the galleries were not continued.
"These could not have been the 'subterraneous chambers' mentioned by Dr. Clarke; which, moreover, were on the very pinnacle of the mountain.' The crypt which he describes at length, was a mere cistern. On the southern summit of the Mount of Olives, are three or four precisely like
it, about twenty feet deep, connected probably with former buildings here, of which there are traces. A few paces lower, between them and the tombs, is still another, ten feet deeper. They are similar to those which abound north of the city; and inferior to some of them. We came across a large one in that quarter, supported by arches. The attempt of Dr. Clarke, to connect a common cistern with the idolatry of Solomon and the worship of Astaroth, devoting learned notes to the discussion, and sending travellers in pursuit of Pagan remains upon Mount Olivet, is most unpardonable."-Compare the similar remarks in Bibl. Res. I. p. 539, note 3.
Former Tower in the N. W. corner of the City. The remains of this tower, or bastion, are described in the Researches, Vol. I. p. 471," as consisting of a large square area, or platform, built up solidly of rough stones, fifteen or twenty feet in height, and paved on the top." At the S. W. corner of it, near the ground, "three courses of large bevelled ́stones, rough hewn, pass into the mass diagonally, in such a way as to show that they lay here before the tower and bastion were built." These we referred to the ancient third wall of Josephus; the foundations of which we could trace from near this point to a considerable distance northwards, outside of the city.
To our account of this ruin, Mr. Wolcott adds the following. "Besides the bevelled stones described in the S. W. corner, a doorway in the N. W. corner leads into a small room, in which are four similar layers; and these, like the former, do not seem to have been disturbed. Mr. T. refers them to the age of the ancient wall. The site is perhaps the highest in the city; and a strip of the Dead Sea is visible from the present summit. The native name of the ruin is Kul'at Yellûd.
Mr. W. suggests, whether this point may not have been the position of the tower of Psephinos, described by Josephus; remarking that the ancient wall appears to have here formed a right angle. But the position assigned by Josephus to that tower, was the north-west corner of the city as enclosed by Agrippa's or the third wall,-a point much farther towards the north, as is shown by the remaining traces of that wall.--See Bibl. Res. I. pp. 458, 465 sq.
Ancient Khân. During our visit to the well, connected with the fountain under the Haram, I recollect noticing to
SECOND SERIES, VOL. VIII. NO. I.
wards the south, (on the opposite side of the street, I think,) a large oblong open court, with traces of ruined buildings. I am not sure, whether this is the same described by Mr. Wolcott in the following paragraph.
"Passing north of the court just mentioned, I was struck with the appearance of its southern side; and think it deserves a passing mention. Its foundations are the bevelled stones of Jewish architecture; and three massive arches lead beneath a terrace supported by twenty-four columns of masonry. The plan was too extensive for a private edifice; and I found on enquiry, that it was known as a ruined Khân, by the two names of Khân Emîr Hasan, and Khân Otuz Bîr. It probably belonged to the early days of the Muslim conquest; and is one of the most compact ancient substructures within the city. It is in the centre of the block, a few feet south of west from the well, and west of the Grand Mosk. It communicates at present with no street; and descending into the court, although in the heart of the city, I seemed to be in entire seclusion."
'Amwâs, Emmaus, i. e. Nicopolis. This place we saw from Tell es-Sâfieh, but not afterwards. On our map it is laid down on the south of the road from Yâfa to Jerusalem, on the authority of Prokesch and others. But the text holds of it the following language: "It is said by some to lie about one hour from Lâtrôn towards the south; while other information places it ten or fifteen minutes north of Lâtrôn, towards Yâlo."
Mr. Wolcott communicates the following remark, under date of Jan. 11th. "I am reminded to tell you, that Mr. Tipping says you have put down Emmaus ('Amwâs) on the map in the wrong position, south of the Jerusalem road, instead of north of it, where he found it last week."
Correction in the Biblical Researches. Mr. W. was led to suspect, that the measure of 630 feet, assigned to the southern wall of the Haram, outside of the city wall, (Vol. I. p. 395,) was too great. This measurement included the dis tance, from the point where the city wall would join the south wall of the Haram, to the S. E. corner of the latter, viz. 60 feet for the exterior building in the corner, and 570 feet beyond; as I find on recurring to my original pencil-notes.
*Bibl. Res. III. p. 30. Comp. II. p. 363.
This last distance Messrs Wolcott and Tipping found on careful measurement to be only 550 feet; and further, by like measurement, both within and without the city, they ascertained" that the whole length of the southern wall of the Haram, as nearly as it can be measured, is 915 feet, instead of 955 feet as given by Prof. R." (Vol. I. p. 430,) making a difference of forty feet. "This correction," Mr. W. remarks, "will help his argument." I am, however, unable to account for the error. This measurement of the circumference of the city was one of our first in Jerusalem; it was made by me alone, our two Arab servants carrying the tape. It of course did not pretend to any great accuracy; and the correction made by Mr. W. of three feet in the length of the eastern wall of the Haram, (1525 feet, instead of 1528,) does not surprise me. Had the other error in the southern wall amounted to 100 feet, instead of 40, I should at once have supposed I had counted one length of the tape twice over. As it is, it may have arisen, perhaps, from some mistake in reading off the number of feet on the tape, when not stretched its whole length.
1.--Lectures in Divinity, by the late George Hill, D. D., Principal of St. Mary's College, St. Andrews. Edited from his manuscript by his son, the Rev, Alexander Hill, minister of Dailly. Philadelphia: Herman Hooker, 1842. pp.
THE publisher of this volume of "Lectures in Divinity" has done a valuable service to the religious public of the United States. He has placed within the reach of Theological students and ministers of the gospel, in a convenient form and at a reasonable price, a body of theology well arranged and written in a lucid, didactic style. The author was a highly respected minister in the Church of Scotland, and for many years Professor of Divinity in St. Mary's College. The Lectures are divided into VI. Books, and these again into chapters
and sections. The books treat, in order, of the following subjects-Evidences of the Christian Religion-General view of the Scripture System-Opinions concerning the Son, the Spirit, and the manner of their being united with the Father
Opinions concerning the Nature, the Extent and the Appli. cation of the Remedy brought by the Gospel-Index of particular questions, arising out of opinions concerning the gospel Remedy, and of many of the technical terms of TheologyOpinions concerning Church Government. Under these general heads, we have a brief and candid history of the principal theological opinions which have prevailed on the earth, and a very fair presentation of those views, on different points, which the author could not adopt. Those who differ with him, as we perhaps should on a few points, will have no reason to complain of his unfairness, but must be prepared to meet his arguments with the same candor and kindness which he manifests. His views of original Sin, Atonement, Redemption, etc., are those of the Scotch Church generally.
· 2.-The Poetical Works of John Sterling. First American Edition. Philadelphia: Herman Hooker, 1842. pp. 268.
These poetical effusions are from the pen of Mr. Sterling, formerly a clergyman, now a gentleman of leisure and letters, who has been a frequent contributor to the pages of Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, under the signature of Archæus.
The volume commences with the "Sexton's Daughter," which he who readeth once will wish to read again. It is a beautiful tale of tenderness and love, represented in the sim. plest, chastest language, and with the manner of an artist. The "Hymns of a Hermit," and several other interesting pieces, not found in the volume published in England in 1839, are introduced in this first American Edition.
Whilst we appreciate the style and generally the sentiments of the book, and discover much that is chaste, tender, pure, and beautiful, we cannot but regret that the publisher has seen fit to enclose it all in so homely an exterior.
3.-Elementary Principles of Interpretation, translated from the Lalin of J. A. Ernesti, with notes, and an Appendix, containing Extracts from Morus, Beck, Keil, and Henderson. By Moses Stuart. Fourth Edition. Andover: Allen, Morrill, & Wardwell. New York: Dayton & New1842. pp. 142.
This small manual has already passed through three edi