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years after Christ the Jewish state is judged, in the destruc: tion of Jerusalem; and 1260 and 75 make 1335, the greater number of Daniel.'
Perhaps this latter observation furnishes the reason for that which has perplexed all students of prophecy-namely, that no event marked the end of the 1290 days of Daniel, which were generally supposed to be cut off from the 1335, and that, there fore, some striking historical fact would mark that epoch; but none which is reckoned satisfactory has been mentioned hitherto.
Seventy-five years appears, then, the period which intervenes . between the appearance of a new dispensation and the ful'ness of its institution, by judgment of what is gone by. It
does not come into the primary calculation; it would come, as * the mathematicians express it, into both sides of the equation.' Also, it appears to be appended to any thing to which the number of 1260 is appended.
The author does not mean to tie events to chronological periods very closely, partly because there are not materials for doing so in many instances; and partly because, as he justly observes, Scriptural phrases may depend upon things of very little apparent importance in ordinary history. He makes one general observation, as to the mode in which God is pleased to present his church in the world, which elucidates his ways-namely, that He reckons the date of spiritual desolation from its first establishment, and fixes the time of temporal judgment by the last degree of corruption of state, and, indeed, to wait beyond it. He does not mean by first establishment, first development.
In proceeding to the first particular of the calculation, the number 1260 is deducted from 2000, the last division of the 6000 years, and gives the 740th of the Christian æra. • I would • here ask the mind of any one that hears of reads, of how ordinary. a matter the passages in the history of the world seem, when compared with the denunciations of Holy Writ. • When men and actions are treated of, how conscious should be the danger of considering them but as of themselves, and not as open to the eye of the Almighty, as weighed in his balance, as making up the ways that shall guide all things to his final purpose, and receiving every one its judgment. I do not know a greater benefit from the habit of perusal of his work in all its parts, than the exercise of this habit of considering every trifle that occurs.' . The year 740 is the period when the sovereignty of Greece ceased at Rome. Rome became independent of the Eastern Empire on the division occasioned by
the Iconoclasts. Gregory, the Second, as an historian calls * bim on this account the first Pope, having promoted that
division, became in a material degree (indeed efficiently, as to the indication of character which day by day proceeded to its perfect independence and full claim of empire) sovereign of Rome. He was defended against the Lombards by the French, who received at a distance from Rome the title of the empire shortly after. This course of things is pointed out very * remarkably and distinctly in Vertot's Grandeur de la Cour de • Rome. I have considered, then, that 740 is the year which
the period of Scripture would mark as the establishment of some * character which is a spiritual desolation, and from which final judgment proceeded; and it does ' appear that the Babylomian character of fornication with the kingdom, or kingdoms, * of the earth, is that character.
..The great city in the wilderness is that city. The church fled to it to be nourished in the persecution : it was a gradual åpproximation to a union which might protect its profession, but ended in the last ruin of carnal contamination, as a kingdom that confessed itself not of this world.'
The author has missed the mark here, although he seemed at one time to shoot very near it. Many expositors of the Apocalypse have overlooked the fact, that up to the year 740 the East was the heavens, or place of rule.' In that heaven the woman was, till by the Spanish Council, the Eastern church being declared apostate, she was cast out of those heavens, and obliged to fly into the West. The wilderness, however, to which she fled, is not typified by that of Sinai, but by that of Shinar. Here, indeed, "they nourished her"-otGod, even if it be granted that the place was prepared by Him, ήτοιμασμενος απο το θεο, ινα εκει τρεφωσιν αντην: the last plural noun to which τρεφωσιν Can refer is eövn, in the preceding verse: and when the figure passes from a woman in the wilderness to a city, there was no city in Sinai; but the great city of Babylon was in the plain of Shinar.
The author observes, that the process had a point of completion when Constantine professed himself a Christian,' which he did in 306. It was at this period that the Waldenses first separated themselves in one part of the empire, and so many thousands fled to the deserts of Egypt and Palestine.' Neither of these, however, can be called an outward separation : and perhaps the author does not mean that it was, for we cannot understand the remarks which he makes in page 27. The conclusion is, that the danger to faith, wlien the Emperor Constantine declared
himself a Christian, was subtle, and felt only by the heavenly. "minded. The prominence of the evil in 740 is marked to the face of the church and the world. Prideaux, in his Connec. tions, after a very long discussion on the period of the commencement of the Babylonish captivity, and of the restoration
of Jerusalem, relative to the completion of the seventy years of that judgment—there having been two invasions, and two ' leadings into captivity, and two decrees of restoration-has * the following passsage : " And therefore, if we reckon from the * beginning of the captivity to the beginning of the restoration, * we must reckon from the fourth year of Jehoiakin to the first of Cyrus, which was just seventy years; and if we reckon from the completion of the captivity to the completion of the restoration, we must reckon from the eleventh of Zedekiah to the • fourth of Darius, which was also just seventy years : so that
whether we reckon from the beginning of the captivity to the beginning of the restoration, or from the completing of the
captivity to the completing of the restoration, Jeremiah's prophecy of the seventy years' captivity will be both ways equally accomplished; and therefore I doubt not but that both ways were equally intended therein, though the words of the prophecy seem chiefly to refer to the former.” (Part i. 6. iii). It is therefore by no means incompatible that such a mode of • fulfilment should be looked for in other periods of God's judg'ments.'
* Having marked the period of A. D. 740, it gives also the character subject to the judgment. Having also looked to see when the process began, I reverse the order of the calculation. I remark it in the year 306, when the Emperor Constantine called himself Christian, and made the church which suffered his adoption, ROMAN.'—This observation must be received with some qualification. The act of Constantine made it quite as much Grecian as Roman. If, however, the author means that the Emperor made it imperial, and Ro-, man as synonimus, there is no objection to his position. And he has himself previously said, 'The year 740 is the period when
the sovereignty of Greece ceased at Rome.'-'Add 1260, and it 'gives 1566, a day of judgment, or its corruption. It is the period of the close of the Council of Trent, by which the church of Rome entrenched itself within all it could keep. I add 75, and it gives me the period of the establishment of the powers • that had been the instrument of its judgment; I mean, the peace of Westphalia....At what moment, during the period that that peace was carrying on, it was essentially concluded, I. know not: the negociations were carrying on during eleven
years, and in the course of those eleven years the year 1641 • falls. And what did that peace effect? The formal recognition • and establishment of Protestantism by the nations of Europe ; • and as such Rome considered it: Rome condemned it as in• fringing her claim and right to universal authority in both • kinds; and it was not, and never has been, admitted by that
power, but denounced by it. The particulars I leave to be examined by historians; it was the close of the so-called thirty years' war. I give these things as little place as possible: the terms of the world are a means of bringing our thoughts to its own ways.'
• In the way of double application of prophetic passages, it • is known that the wilful king of Daniel is held by the received ' writers on prophecy to foretell one of the family of Antiochus, • and also the Antichrist of the latter ages. The only objection, • if it be one, to such an assorting of the prophecy, is, that there would be an anachronism as respects the application; any of the Antiochi being so long anterior in comparative chronology 'to the expectation of Antichrist.....I recur, then, to the days of ' the week of 6000 years, and, taking the last of the periods, namely 2000 years, I deduct the same number of years from this as constituted the lapse of time between the end of the preceding
2000 and the æra of Antiochus the Great, who is generally 'fixed upon ; and his death occurs in the year 187 before the • birth of Christ, which synchronizes with 1813, the close of the
career of Napoleon, and with that of the judgment of the French • Revolution on the Papal states of Europe.
The author proceeds to give Arosarns as the sum of the number 666, without appearing to be aware that the same explanation has been given by others. This solution, however, is open to all the objections that can be made to that given by Clarke, in his “ Dragon, and Beast,” y Aarelvn Baoileia, without much of the exclusive appropriateness of this latter.
The tract contains a Supplement, on the Signs of the Times; in which the writer takes much the same view that has been set forth by Coleridge in his “Church and State ;” and by Southey, in his “ Colloquies; and by the author of " Social Duties; shewing that the evil of the Atheistical and Evangelical parties consists in their having a common point, which is individualization, instead of communion of hope, love, and fellowship, which is the bond of Christian perfectness. The whole publication is full of good thoughts, but expressed in language oftentimes unintelligible, setting all grammar at defiance; so that the thoughts are to be guessed at, rather than received from the writer.
CHRONOLOGICAL SYSTEM OF CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS.
To the Editor of the Morning Watch. SIR,—I shall be obliged by your insertion of the enclosed Table of the chronological system adopted by Clemens Alexandrinus, referred to in the “Criteria” (Morning Watch, No. IX. p. 175);
and by requesting your readers to note the following Errata in
CHRONOLOGICAL SYSTEM ADOPTED BY
Cle- Jose- Corrected Dates of
Years. Years. Ante-Christ. Nat.
5584 Creation to Deluge
2148 2256 5562
50 0 0 688 01. 48
588 3 An. 1
.... 235 0
0 538 .. Babyl Æra
518 of Cyrus.
............... 305 0 0 325
129 7 0 72
• In this 666 years, 215 are added to the period of the Egyptian bondage. (See Criteria,
It will be seen that, by deducing the corrected dates of Clemens from his original date of
904 17 from bottom : for 40, read 50.
21: for nearly 30, read about 40.
39 : for 108, read 106.
164 7 from bottom : for 5000, read 5500.
and more encouraging are daily occurring within the Church, which confirm