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beyond their own vicinity; and that if he, or some of his li. beral-minded neighbours, do not communicate better information to che compiler, the error is likely to be continued.

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While the present system continucs, of setting apart fome from the general business of society, to officiate in cathedra ecclefiæ, the writer of this takes the liberiy to ask these men of leisure and information, whether they may not well apply a few moments of their time, in a way fatisfactory to themselves, and useful to the public, in communia cating to the gazetteer-makers topographical information. If such will have the kindness to contribute to this work, their communica. tions will be gratefully received; and here he may acknowledge to have received from several of his friends, and also from Araugers

, of this description, both of the political establishment and diflenters

, very liberal encouragement in the prosecution of this work. But the present is a production which it does not require erudition to find fault with or amend. There is scarcely any individual but may suggest improvements, or give useful information, on some place which he knows: and every reader, from the school-boy to the man in years, who shall communicate amendments, will confer an obligation on the author.

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All who may have the liberality thus to yield aflistance to the work, are requested particularly to give information on such subjects as the following, or as in answer to any of these queries :—What is the place! -What it's name?- In what district ftuated? --- How many houses or people?-What the soil ?-What the appearance of the surrounding country?-By what produ&tion or manufacture are they enabled in support themselves, pay taxes, &c.?-What curiosity have they or had they, natural or artificial ?-What particular customs?-What public establishments of Infirmaries, Hospitals, Schools, Libraries, &c.?What the ftuation of the place?-On hill or in vale; on what road or highway; or on what river, bay, creek, or fea? -- And what are it's distance and bearings from other places, &c. ?-What places already mentioned in this work are jo insignificant, that they ought to be omitred ? And which are so important that they ought to form diftin&t paragraphs ?

Perhaps those who are kind enough to oblige him as above, will not take it amiss, if he take the liberty to suggest to them, that the communication between the country and the capital is easy, and that opportunities in the course of the year may occur to them offending up their descriptions without expence. His reason for mentioning this, is the apprehenfion that unnecessary expence of postage might otherwise be incurred; perhaps, many different people sending the fame information ; and, he hopes, this alarm will be fully apologized for, when he mentions that feveral of his last year's leiters did, for

proper directions, travel, in a circuitous course, above goo miles more than necellary; and that one of them, in particular, to the writer of which he feels himself very nuuch obliged, which colt hall a vrown, and would bave been three timce the an.ount if it had come by

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poft all the way, would not, if the writer had had the above informa. tion, have cost any thing, and would have been of use in enriching the description of two capital towns, which cannot now be done in this edition.

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Anticipating the future, from experience of the past, the author expects he may again obtain epistolary communications, and therefore mentions, that it will be convenient, if the descriptions be written only on one side of the paper, as they can then be cut up, and alsorted alphabetically, and if they be sent up within a month or six weeks of the midsummer of each vear, directed to John WALKER, Guy's Hospital, London. Letters (post paid) thus directed, will be duly at. tended to; and his friends, who wish to have a more immediate com. munication, already know his direct address.

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On so dry a subječt as a Gazetteer, correct and elegant language can hardly be expected; on the contrary, in the places of little note, for the sake of brevity, the jargon of the mercantile world is often adopted, by leaving out the ots and ins, &c. in utter violation of syntax or contruction, but in compliance with a custom now so generally received as almost to appear proper; witness the modern manner of addrelling letters, &c.

As, in the course of this work, the expressions of elegant, hand. fome, &c. are often applied in describing works of art, the author thinks it right to observe, that, while he thus declares a fact 10 the reader, 'who may hold such things in admiration, he fe's, for his own part, in such productions, a hidden defoninity; for, while the beauties in nature appear ealy and spontaneous, the productions of ait do all hear upon them the marks of tediousness, difficulty, toil, or fatigue, and he considers every useless labour as a deduction from the comforts of the poor, who are deprived even of the necessaries of life through the

extravagance of the rich. It is not usual in books of this sort to give any errata, nor will the time admit a revisal of this work, yet a few instances, from memory, may be noted. In the only instance where the word physiological occurs, read pathognomonical; and, in like manner, for antisceptic, on mineral water, read antiseptic. In the description of London, tead wejt and ealt ends of the town, for east and well ends of the town, and Threadneedle-ftree for Throg morton street. Under Kılmainham, read the people of industrious habits have returned, immediately after the words in and about the city.

The omissions of ARRAS and BANNOCKBURN have been pointed out to me by, I believe, nalives of the countries in which these places are lituated.

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ARRAS, a large, ancient, and handsome BANNOCKBURN, a town of Stirlingtown in the dept. of the Straits of Calais, shire, dear to the Scotch, who value nacontaining 22,000 inhabitants. It is di- tional prowess ; for here the vaft army of vided into two towns, one named the city, Edward II. was defeated, the invader which is the inost ancient; and the other himself narrowly escaping in a boat. the town, which is modern. Here are se- By philofophy, however, which seems to veral fine public buildings, and a well. be happily abolishing national distinctions, furnished library and leminary. The courage is not now to highly estimated as streets are spacious, and inhabited by it was in more barbarous times. The traders and artificers. They have manu- brute, which runs at large in the forest and factories of fail-cloth and tapestry-hang- acts for itself, seems vastly more timid than ings, especially the latter, which, from that which is domesticated by man, prothat art being first invented in this city, vided that the master be present to anitake their name from it; but they are inate his barking Nave. There are, how. now more beautifully manufactured at ever, instances where the brute in it's laParis, Brusels, and' Antwerp. Before vage state, seems to equal in boldness the Arràs fell into the hands of the French, molt hardy and desperate dog in slavery, the following inscription was over one of as in the protection of their young ; and, the gates of the city, Quand les François fometimes in their associations, for muruprendront Arras, les fouris mangeront les al defence, they display considerable cou. chats.i. e. “When the French Mall rage. The Scots, ai Bannockburn, (more take Arras, the mice shall eat the cats." fuccessful than the English, who opposed But when the French took it, a wit ob- the tyrant Willia:n 1.) were, perhaps, ferved, that the inscription might ftill like the French of the present day, as the stand, if, by erasing one letter, prendront animals in their native forests; the Naves, were changed to rendront ; i. e, shall re- led against them, as dogs in a servile state. store instead of shall take. Arras is feat. Bannockburn is also noted for the defeat ed on the river Scarp, 12 miles SW. of of James III. that was killed in flight by Douay, and 22 NW. of Cambray. Lat. the nobility, who, with the prince, his 50. 17. N. lon, 2. 51. E.

lon, at their head, took up arms against
hiin on account of his tyranny.

There has one improper expression escaped the author, not through intemperate zeal, but from want of judgment at the time. In speaking of the people most deeply engaged in the iniquitous traffic in human beings, he has used the name "incorrigible human butchers.” Were he to write the part over again, he would say " incorrigible men;" because, although they be butchers in effect, it appears that some, very intimately connected with the Slave-Trade, are yet so ignorant of the evil they promote, that they are far, very far, indeed, from being human butchers in design. But although it be now very fully and openly proved, that the laughter of the human species, as well as their abrutalization, is a consequence of the Man-Trade, he thinks it may not be improper to bring forward one frightful description of the Trade, which he particularly lecollected at the time of writing, and which he does not remember to have seen related in what he has read on the subject.

A friend of the author, travelling on the Grand Canal with a surgeon, formerly on board of a Guineaman, fupped at the same inn with him, and, in the evening's conversation, was informed of a method of obtaining kidnapped Naves up the rivers in Africa. The vellel lies at anchor in the middle of the river, and during the day there is but little appearance of business about it; the night is the time for completing their detestable works of darknels. At night, the boats are manned, watch is kept upon deck, and a con

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fiant lock-out along both shores of the river. A spark, itruck with flint and steel, is the signal alhore, that the kidnappers are coming with their prey. The signal is answered on board in the same way, and a boat sets out to meet them. A spark can be diftinguished at an immense distance through the gloom of night; and, by now and then repeating these signals, the parties al length meet at the water's edge, when the surgeon examines the victims, and the bargain is begun. This is accounted a very cheap method of obtaining llaves ; for the kidnappers generally wish to get immediately rid of their viétims, before their friends be alarmed. Sometimes it is a single ruffian, with his prey, whom they find on the shore. The method of these terrible men, is to provide themselves with a knife and a strong leather thong, with a noose at one end, and to lie in wait in the thickets for the unsuspecting passengers. When one of these, whom the ruffian thinks he can overpower, approaches sufficiently near to the thicket, he rushes out, cafts the noose round his neck, and drags him half suffocated into the thicket. By degrees he lackens the soole, but presents the naked knife, assuring the victim, that he will instantly put him to death, if he make the lealt noise or resistance. Thus he holds him during the day, and at night, with the same caution and the fame threats, leads him along to the river, announcing his arrival with the flint and steel, as already mentioned. If the victim be a female, she is more easily managed. It sometimes happens, that the whites, thinking the victim not valuable, or taking advantage of the ruffian's situation, will not give him any thing for his prey. He then has no alternative. To let him loose, might bring a hoit of the victim's friends upon him in revenge; and from despair or indignation, he at once cuts open his throat, or stabs him to the heart, and pushes him into the river, that his remains may be swept far away from the molt diligent researches of his friends.

These horrid instances of murder, perpetrated under the influence of different and dreadful paslions, through this atrocious traffic, are perhaps only exceeded by such cold-blooded murders as are mentioned under the article NANTZ, or related in the report of the Directors of the Sierra Leona Company, of an English flave, who set up a tac. tory on the coast. This unhappy wretch had arrived to such a pitch of hardness of heart, that, it seems, he used to tie stones to the necks of his unsaleable slaves, and drown them in the river during the night. At length, having retired to the Isle de Los, for the benicht of sea air and medical help, the Bagos, one of whose towns he had recently destroyed, surrounded his factory, put his son and adhicrents to death, shared his effects to the amount of near 30,000l, with his llaves, and burnt all his buildings. The old man lived to hear the news, but died in about a month after. The people, who relinquished the use of West India produce, obtained by means of slavery, had certainly some reason on their side, in adopting a conduct so húmane; but ihough the unfeeling legislature of their country has not yet removed the cause, the abolition of the trade and emancipation of it's victims, are events which seem to he hastening. An allenibly which enters upon the business of it's nation, without


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(shall we say the mockery of ?) form of prayer, has had the piety
to raise the blacks from the dust, and embrace them as brethren.

The author thinks it necessary to observe, that, as in the compilation of this Work, he has preferred the descriptions which he received from natives or residents, as he also requested of the printers, who happened to be from different countries, to correct any errorthey might discover in the copy, as he sometimes left this'incomplete, inserting queries in it, to be answered in the printing-office, the answers to be inserted to complete the narration ; and, as he had not always the opportunity of reading the proofs, when struck off

, some expressions may have crept in, which are contrary to his sentiments, though perhaps not at all disagreeable to the generality of readers. One of thele, however, he has detected, and cannot but remark, that it is an expression that he believes never does escape him, either in word or writing. The expression is a common people. In the same article, a title is embodied with the name, which is also contrary to the author's general manner; and he hopes, if there be any other instances discovered of departure from his usual style, that they will be attributed to the causes already mentioned. His sentiments on the words common people are so well expressed in part of the er, rata of a work lately published, that, with permission of the author, he here inserts it:

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" The author perhaps should also note, as errata, the words.common-people, better sort of people, &c.' in short, every expression which may have escaped him tending to exalt or depress the human species, from any consideration of outward circumstances; and, in so doing, he claims the indulgence due to a foreigner, who receives or picks up certain phrases. without entirely entering into their full fig. nification. The better sort of people', are those who are frugal in their expences, and conscientiously apply their time and pofleflions to the good of society, and it is to be regretted, that the opposite character is common.'

Charles Berns Wadstrom's Essay on Colonization.

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