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located in the Indian Ocean about five hundred miles east of Madagascar.

8: 10. Dupleix (dü-plā'), Marquis Joseph François (1697-1763), a French Governor of Pondicherry, about one hundred miles south of Madras, and Director-general of the French East Indies (17421754.)

9: 2. A desperate duel. Clive accused a notorious ensign in the army of cheating in a game of cards. In the duel which followed Clive fired amiss, and his opponent holding his pistol at Clive's very temples, demanded an apology. At Clive's spirited refusal the fellow dropped his weapon, declaring him mad.

9: 9. Major Lawrence. Major Stringer Lawrence, not to be confused with Baron Lawrence or with Sir Henry Lawrence, who also were prominent military leaders in India.

9: 12. Peace had been concluded. By the treaty of Aixla-Chapelle, October 7, 1748.

9: 25. Tamerlane (c. 1333-1405), a famous Mogul, or Tatar chieftain, who in 1398 invaded the northwest of India. Baber (14831530), a descendant of Tamerlane, in 1526 completed his conquest, expelled the Mohammedan rulers and established the Mogul Empire with Delhi (děl'lē) as capital.

9:32. St. Peter's. The world-renowned Catholic cathedral at Rome.

9:34. Versailles (Věr-sâ'-ē). Near Paris, the seat of the magnificent court of Louis XIV, who reigned from 1643 to 1715.

10:4. The Grand Duke of Tuscany. During the eighteenth century an important noble attached to the German Empire. Tuscany is a large province on the western coast of Italy, containing the city of Florence, a center of the Renaissance revival of arts.

10: 5. The Elector of Saxony. The Prince of Saxony, one of the powerful German potentates who elected the emperors.

10: 8. Worse governed than the worst governed parts. Note the forcefulness of Macaulay's English, gained so often as here through the repetition of words.

10: 23. Aurungzebe (or Aurangzeb; pronounced Aw-rung-zěb'), Emperor, or Mogul, of Hindustan (1658-1707).

10: 26. Violent shocks from without. Persian armies under Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah invaded the Mogul Empire in 1739 and 1748. 10: 29. Theodosius, “the Great,” the powerful Emperor of the East from 379 to 395. His weak sons, Arcadius and Honorius, were unable to hold the empire, to which they succeeded, against the encroachments of the Vandals, Huns and Goths.

10:31. The Carlovingians. Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, a Frank, in the year 800 founded an empire comprising Germany, Lombardy and Italy. His successors were unable to hold this realm together. Gradually powerful dukes and counts absorbed the power, and foreign invasions soon showed the weakness of the nominal government.

11:9. The Hungarian. Attila, the Hun (c. 406-453), who invaded the Roman Empire in the year 447.

II: 10. The Gogor Magog. See Ezekiel xxxviii-xxxix; also, Revelations xx.

II: II. Lombardy. A district in the north of Italy, containing the cities of Como, Bergamo, Milan, Brescia and others.

II: 12. The Pannonian forests. A region comprising the Hungary of to-day together with parts of Austria and Bosnia.

II: 13. Campania. A fertile district of southern Italy.

12: 1. Roe, Sir Thomas (c. 1581-1644), an English ambassador (1615-1618) at the court of Jahangir, the Great Mogul. His Journal is an important source of information concerning that period.

12: 2. Bernier, Dr. François (c.1625-1688), a Frenchman who was court physician to Aurangzeb from 1656 to 1668. He wrote a valuable account of his travels.

12: 2. The Peacock Throne. It was of gold and precious stones, ornamented with the figure of a peacock. Its cost has been estimated at many millions of dollars.

12: 3. Golconda. Centrally located in the Dekkan and famed for its diamond mines.

12: 4. Mountain of Light. The Koh-i-noor, an immense diamond once owned by Baber, later by the Persian Nadir Shah, and afterwards by the East India Company which donated it in 1850 to the English Crown. Runjeet Sing, who ruled in the Panjab in northwestern India from 1780 to 1839, had this jewel in his possession at one time, and intended it for the temple at Puri in Orissa in eastern India, a noted place of pilgrimage.

12: 7. The Afghan. After 1747 the tribes of Afghanistan under

Ahmad Shah Durani became independent of Persian rule.

12: 9. Rajpootana. A district in the northwest of India.

12: 10. Rohilcund (or Rohilkhand). In northwestern India, oc-

cupied in the early eighteenth century by the Rohillas (“moun-

taineers ), an Afghan clan.

12: 10. The Seiks (or Sikhs). A tribe of Hindus who occupied

the Panjab.

12: 11. The Jauts (or Jats). A warlike race of uncertain origin,

who entered India at an early date from the northwest.

12: 11. The Jumna. A tributary of the Ganges, in north India.

12: 19. The Mahrattas (or Marathas). A strong Hindu tribe in

western and central India in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen-

turies. They belonged to the noblest, or priestly class of Hindus,

the Brahmans.

12: 22. Poonah. A city about eighty miles southeast of Bombay.

12: 22. Gualior. A city about two hundred miles south of Delhi.

12: 22. Guzerat (or Gujarat). A peninsular province in the

west of India.

12: 23. Berar. A province in the central part of India.

12: 23. Tanjore. A city-state about fifty miles south of Fort St.


12: 27ff. Wherever the hyena and the tiger. An instance of

Macaulay's pictorial vividness.

13: 7. The Mahratta ditch. A ditch made by the English in 1742

to protect Calcutta from the Marathas.

13: 19. The Carnatic. See note on Madras, p. 4, 1. 14. It ex-

tended from Cape Comorin to about the latitude 16° N.

13: 21. Lucknow. A city in the central part of India north of the


13: 21. Hyderabad (or Haidarabad). An important city of the

Dekkan, the central portion of the Indian peninsula.

13. 26: Cabul. A province in Afghanistan.

13: 27. Chorasan (or Khorassan). A province of Persia.

13: 33. From Cape Comorin to ... the Himalayas. Practically

India's greatest extent from south to north. See the map.

14: 5. The Burrampooter (spelled also Brahmapootra or Brahma-

putra). A river east of the Ganges.

14: 5. The Hydaspes. Called also the Jehlam, the river flowing from the Himalaya Mountains to the Indus River, one of the five which have given its name to the Panjab (“ Five Rivers ”).

14: 6. Ava. A ruined city, formerly the capital of Burma, a province of India, on the eastern shore of the Bay of Bengal.

14: 7. Candahar. A city and province in Afghanistan.

14: 20. Saxe. Maurice, Count de Saxe (1696–1750), noted for his military leadership as Marshal of France during the War of the Austrian Succession. His chief victory was that over the English at Fontenoy in 1745.

14: 20. Frederick, the Second, called “the Great,” King of Prussia (1740-1786), noted for his military energy during the War of the Succession and the Seven Years' War, and for his patronage of literature.

15: 19. Nizam al Mulk, Chin Kulich Khan (1644-1748). Appointed Governor of the Dekkan, he had achieved in 1720 practical independence of the Great Mogul.

15: 23. Anaverdy Khan (d. 1749). His correct name was Anwarud-din.

15: 26. Mirzapha Jung (or Muzafir Jang), (d. 1751). 15: 28. A former Nabob. Dost Ali.

16: 2. Coromandel. The eastern seaboard of India between Calimere Point and the mouths of the Kistna River.

16: 12. Mahommed Ali (d. 1795).

16: 13. Burke, Edmund (1729-1797), an Irish Member of Parliament (1766-1794), famous for his writings and speeches in behalf of the rights of the American colonies and those of India. He denounced in 1785 certain money transactions of the Nabob of Arcot, which had been carried on in England and countenanced by Pitt's administration.

16:15. Trichinopoly. About sixty miles southwest of Fort St. David.

18: 28. Arcot. About seventy miles west of Madras.
19: 29. Vellore. A town about eighty miles west of Madras.

20: 21. Tenth Legion of Cæsar. Julius Cæsar (100-44 B. C.), was the great military leader among the Romans during the Republic. He conquered Gaul, and then, as dictator, was for some time master of Rome until his assassination. In the Roman army of Cæsar's

time a

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legion" amounted to about 4,500 men and was equivalent to our regiment.” Cæsar especially relied upon his Tenth Legion which he highly praises in his Commentaries written during his Gallic campaigns.

20: 21. Old Guard of Napoleon. The body of troops especially attached to Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), the great Corsican leader of France. Every soldier admitted to the Old Guard was a veteran of at least four campaigns. These troops “saved the day' for Napoleon in many a battle, and on the field of Waterloo, fought almost to the last man, thus effecting Napoleon's escape.

21: 18. Hosein (or Husein). The second son of Caliph Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Mohammed. Since Ali married Fatima, the daughter of the prophet Mohammed, his descendants were called Fatimites. When Ali was murdered, Yezzid (or Yazid), seized upon the caliphate and twenty years later had Hosein put to death to silence his claims.

23: 5. Timery. A town a few miles south of Arcot, on a branch of the Palar River.

23: 12. Conjeveram. About forty miles southwest of Madras. 23: 13. Arnee (or Arni). About seventy miles southwest of Madras.

25: II. Captain Bobadil. The character of a cowardly braggart in the comedy of Every Man in His Humor (1598) by Ben Jonson.

25:18. Bussy, Charles Joseph Patissier, Marquis de BussyCastelnau (1718-1785).

26: 12. Covelong. A fort twenty-five miles south of Madras. 26: 13. Chingleput. A fort about forty miles south of Madras.

27: 11. Maskelyne, Margaret. Nevil Maskelyne was the “eminent mathematician.” Another brother, Edmund, was Clive's friend and companion in his escape from Madras when Dupleix violated the terms granted the English by Labourdonnais. See again p. 8, 11. 9-17.

27: 26. The India House. The headquarters of the East India Company, situated on Leadenhall Street, in central London.

27: 28. The Directors. Twenty-four directors elected by the stockholders administered the affairs of the East India Company.

28: 17. Gayly even for those times. Then men wore clothing resplendent with bright-colored satins and velvets, and with trimmings of lace, buttons and elaborate embroidery of gold and silver.

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