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the Prince of Wales on the occasion of his visit in 1876. There was a breakfast prepared, which the prince left his guests to enjoy in company with their English friends. In this country the hospitality of the highest princes never goes so far as to ask you to eat. The rules of caste are so marked that the partaking of food with one of another caste, and especially of another race, would be defilement. The host at the close of the breakfast returned in state, and there was the ceremony of altar and pan, and cordial interchanges of good feeling between the Maharajah and the General.
The General and party visited the famous ruins of Futtehpoor Sikva. In the days of the great Mohammedan rulers there was none so great as Akbar. He founded the city and built the palace. The night had fallen before the visitors arrived at their destination, so that they were compelled to remain over night in the ruins. Mr. Lawrence, the British Collector at Agra, had sent forward bed and bedding, and all that was necessary to make the guests comfortable. After a night's rest, the following morning an early start was made to view the ruins. To see all of this stupendous ruin would include a ride around a circumference of seven miles. The ruins were well worth a study. The General examined first a courtyard, or quadrangle, four hundred and thirty-three feet by three hundred and sixty-six feet. On one side of this is the mosque, which is a noble building, suffering, however, from the overshadowing grandeur of the principal gateway, the finest, it is said, in India, looming up out of the ruins with stately and graceful splendor, but dwarfing the other monuments and ruins. This was meant as an arch of triumph to the glory of the Emperor, “King of Kings," “ Heaven of the Court,” and “Shadow of God.” There are many of these inscriptions in Arabic, a translation of which is found in Mr. Keene's handbook. The most suggestive is this: “Know that the world is a glass, where the favor has come and gone. Take as thine own nothing more than what thou lookest upon.” The prevailing aspect of the architecture was Moslem, with traces of Hindoo taste and deco. ration. The mosque, the tombs and the gateway are all well preserved. At one of the mosques were a number of natives in prayer, who interrupted their devotions long enough to show General Grant the delicate tracing on the walls and beg a rupee. One of the pleasures of wandering among these stupendous ruins is to wander alone and take in the full meaning of the work and the genius of the men who did it. The guides have nothing to tell you. The ruins to them are partly dwelling-places, pretexts for beg. ging rupees.
General Grant and party visited Benares — the sacred city of the Hindoos — a city of temples, idols, priests, and worship. The General found so much to interest him in India that it was a source of regret to him that he did not come earlier in the season. Every hour in the country had been full of interest, and the hospitality of the officials and the people so generous and profuse, that his way had been especially pleasant. Travel during the day in India is very severe. Mrs. Grant stood the journey, especially the severer phases of it, marvellously, and justifies the reputation for endurance and energy which she won on the Nile. The General is a severe and merciless traveler, who never tires, always ready for an excursion or an experience, as indifferent to the comforts or necessities of the way as if he had been on the tented field. Upon arriving at the station of Benares, Mr. Daniels, the representative of the Viceroy, met the General and party. A large guard of honor was in attendance, accompanied by the leading military and civic English representatives and native rajahs, who walked down the line with uncovered heads.
In honor of the General's coming, the road from the station to the Government House had been illuminated. Poles had been stuck in the ground on either side of the road, and from these poles lanterns and small glass ves. els filled with oil were swinging. So as they drove, before and behind was an avenue of light that recalled the Paris boulevards as seen from Montmartre. It was a long drive to the house of the Commissioner. A part of his house Mr. Daniels gave to General and Mrs. Grant and Mr. Borie. For the others there were tents in the garden.
Benares, the sacred city of the Hindoos, sacred also to the Buddhists, is one of the oldest in the world. Macaulay's description, so familiar to all, is worth reprinting, from the vividness with which it represents it, as to-day. “Benares," says Macaulay, in his essay on Warren Hastings,
was a city which, in wealth, population, dignity and sanctity, was among the foremost in Asia. It was commonly believed that half a million human beings were crowded into that labyrinth of lofty alleys, rich with shrines and minarets, and balconies and carved oriels, to which the sacred apes clung by hundreds. The traveler could scarcely make his way through the press of holy mendicants and not less holy bulls. The broad and stately flights of steps which descended from these swarming haunts to the bathing places along the Ganges were worn every day by the footsteps of an innumerable multitude of worshipers. The schools and temples drew crowds of pious Hindoos from every province where the Brahminical faith was known. Hundreds of devotees came thither every month to die, for it was believed that a peculiarly happy fate awaited the man who should pass from the sacred city into the sacred river. Nor was superstition the only motive which allured strangers to that great metropolis. Commerce had as many pilgrims as religion. All along the shores of the venerable stream lay great fleets of vessels laden with rich merchandise. From the looms of Benares went forth the most delicate silks that adorned the halls of St. James and Verseilies; and in the bazaars the muslins of Bengal and the sabres of Oude were mingled with the jewels of Golconda and the shawls of Cashmere." Benares to one-half the human race — to the millions in China who profess Buddhism and the millions in India who worship Brahma -- is as sacred as Jerusalem to the Christian or Mecca to the Mohammedan. Its greatness was known in the days of Nineveh and Babylon, when, as another writer says, “ Tyre was planting her colonies, when Athens was gaining in strength, before Rome became known, or Greece had contended with Persia, or Cyrus had added to the Persian monarchy, or Nebuchadnezzar had captured Jerusalem.” The name of Benares excites deep emotione in the breast of every pious Hinaoo, and his constant prayer is, “ Holy Kasi! Would that I could see the eternal city favored of the gods! Would that I might die on its sacred soil!”
Benares is a city of priests. Its population is over two hundred thousand; of this number twenty-five thousana are Brahmins. They govern the city, and hold its temples, wells, shrines and streams. Pilgrims are constantly arriv. ing; as many as two hundred thousand come in the course of the year. Not long since, one authority counted fourteen hundred and fifty-four Hindoo temples, and two hundred and seventy-two mosques,
In addition to the temples, there are shrines — cavities built in walls, containing the image of some god-as sacred as the temples. Pious rahjas are always adding to the temples and shrines. The streets are so narrow that only in the widest can even an elephant make his way. They are alleys-narrow alleys, not streets — and, as you thread your way through them, you feel as if the town were one house, the chambers only separated by narrow passages. Benares, the holy city holy even now in the eyes of more than half the human
race --- whose glories, religious and civic, have been forgotten in the noise and glitter of our recent civilization.
The priest is a sacred ruler. He is the first in caste; the world was made for him, and other men depend upon him. If he is angry and curses, his curses can overturn thrones, scatter troops, even destroy this world and summon other worlds into existence. He is above the King in dig. nity. His life is sacred, and, no matter the enormity of the crime, he cannot be condemned to death. The Brahmins are the strongest social and religious force in Hindostan. Benares is their city. The policy which founded the order of Jesuits has often been cited as a masterpiece of government, of combining the strongest intellectual force toward missionary enterprise. But the order of Jesuits is a society under rules and discipline only binding its members. The Brahmins not only govern themselves as rigidly as the Jesuits, and hold themselves ready to go as far in the service of their faith, but they have imposed their will upon every other class. Men of the world, men in other callings, use the name of sesuit as a term or reproach, and even Catholic kings have been known to banish them and put them outside of civil law. There is not a prince in Hindostan who would dare to put a straw in the path of a Brahmin. Brahminism is one of the oldest institutions in the worid, one of the most extraordinary developments of human intellect and discipline, and there is no reason to suppose that its power over India will ever pass away.
Here is the sacred river Ganges. No office is so sacred to the dead as to burn his body on the banks of the Ganges. Several slabs were observed near the burning Ghat; these were in memory of widows who had burned themselves on that spot in honor of their husbands, according to the old rite of suttee. Benares sits on the sacred river, an emblem of the strange religion which has made it a holy city, and there is solemnity in the thought that for ages she has kept