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and navy had been planned by way of Vera Cruz. General Scott having effected a landing above Vera Cruz, a portion of the forces on the Rio Grande was sent down the river to co-operate with him, and among others was Lieutenant Grant, who accompanied the Fourth Infantry, and participated in the siege operations which eventually caused the surrender of Vera Cruz-March 29, 1847. On the first day of April he was appointed regimental quartermaster, a post of recognized importance and responsibility. Lieutenant Grant held this position during the rest of the war.

Though it is customary for the quartermaster of a regiment to remain with the regiment's trains of supplies during an engagement, yet his nature was such that he could not keep out of an engagement, and always rejoined his regiment on such occasions and shared their fighting. At the

battle of Molino del Rey, WINFIELD SCOTT IN 1865.

fought Sept. 8, 1847, he behaved with such distinguished gallantry and merit that he was appointed a full first lieutenant, to date from the day of the battle. In the fierce battle of Chapultepec, on the 13th of September, he won the high approval of his superior officers for his distinguished gallantry, and the sagacity of his tactics while under fire-for his brave and meritorious conduct he received the brevet of Captain of the Regular Army. In Capt. Horace Brooks' report of the



operations of the Second Artillery at Chapultepec, he says:

" I succeeded in reaching the fort with a few men. Here Lieut. U. S. Grant and a few more men of the Fourth Infantry found me, and, by a joint movement, after an obstinate resistance, a strong field. work was carried, and the enemy's right was completely turned."

The report of Major Francis Lee, commanding the Fourth Infantry, of the battle of Chapultepec, says:

“At the first barrier the enemy was in strong force, which ren. dered it necessary to advance with caution. This was done, and when the head of the battalion was within short musket range of the barrier, Lieut. Grant, Fourth Infantry, and Capt. Brooks, Second Artillery, with a few men of their respective regiments, by a hand. some movement to the left, turned the right flank of the enemy, and the barrier was carried.* * * Second-Lieut. Grant behaved with distis.guished gallantry on the 13th and 14th.” *

The report of Brevet Colonel John Garland, commanding the First Brigade, of the battle of Chapultepec, says:

“The rear of the enemy had made a stand behind a breastwork, from which they were driven by detachments of the Second Artillery, under Capt. Brooks, and the Fourth Infantry under Lieut. Grant, supported by other regiments of the division, after a short, sharp conflict. I recognized the command as it came up, mounted a howitzer on the top of a convent, which, under the direction of Lieut. Grant, Quartermaster of the Fourth Infantry, and Lieut. Lendrum, Third Artillery, annoyed the enemy considerably. * * * I must not omit to call attention to Lieut. Giant, who acquitted him. self most nobly upon several occasions under my observation.”

General Worth, in his report of September 16, says:

“ I have again to make acknowledgements to Colonels Garland and Clarke, brigade commanders, as also to their respective staffs; to S. Smith, Haller, and Grant, Fourth Infantry, especially."

Upon the fall of Mexico, and the peace which ensued, 1848, the United States troops were recalled, the Fourth Infantry being first sent to New York and then to the frontier, Captain Grant going with his company first to Detroit and then to Sacketts Harbor. This year he mar. ried Miss Julia Dent, the sister of one of his classinates at West Point.

The discovery of gold in California, in the autumn of 1851, carried to that region an immense emigration, many of whom were desperate, vile and reckless, making it necessary to dispatch more troops in order to protect the

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crowds of emigrants from the Indians, who had been provoked by the lawlessness of the whites to the most cruel reprisals. The battalion to which Captain Grant was attached was sent into Oregon, taking up its quarters at Fort Dallas in that distant territory.

in 1853, after a two-years' absence from his family, finding garrison life in that lonely region offered no opportunities of usefulness, he determined to resign his commission-having been promoted to a full captaincy-which he did on the 31st day of July, 1854, and commenced life as a private citizen, taking up his residence on a small farm near St. Louis, remaining there engaged in commercial pursuits until the year 1859, when he entered into partnership with his father in the leather trade at Galena, Ill. The firm of Grant & Son soon became a very prosperous concern, and at the outbreak of the Rebellion, to all appearances Captain Grant had one of the best business prospects of any one in Galena.



Captain Grant was residing at Galena on the 12th of April, 1861. The “first shot” at Fort Sumter moved him to the utmost depths of his being, and his loyal spirit was roused to its utmost intensity. He said to a friend: The government educated me for the army. What I am, I owe to my country. I have served her through one war, and, live or die, will serve her through this.” Going into the streets of Galena he found no difficulty in raising a company of volunteers; he tendered his and their services to the Governor of the State of Illinois. His zeal and straightforward manner so impressed Governor Yates that he at once made him Adjutant-General of the State. His familiarity with military regulations and the routine of military life enabled him to render efficient service in organizing the several cainps that were being formed at different points. It was owing to his zeal and indomitable labors as mustering officer that Illinois was enabled to turn out so many men as she did at the early stages of the war. One of the Illinois regiments having a vacant colonelcy, the position was offered to and at once accepted by Grant, his commission dating from June 15, 1861.

The following letter by General Grant to his father-inlaw, Frederick Dent, then of St. Louis, is of special interest. It shows General Grant's loyalty and unwavering devotion to

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