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the age of the prophet, were the chief weapons employed in battle, are obviously put for the instruments of war generally that are capable of being converted to peaceful uses. In like manner, ploughshares and pruning-hooks are put for the instruments generally of husbandry and other unwarlike arts. In the following passage, the implements of agriculture and of war are used in the opposite order :
Prepare war; wake up the mighty men ; let all the men of war draw near; let them come up. Beat your ploughshares into swords, and your pruning-hooks into spears ” (Joel iii. 9, 10). In the following passage day is used by the figure : “These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens” (Gen. ii. 4). As the creation occupied six days, the term is here used synonymously with days, or time. It is employed in the same manner in the expressions, “the day of power," " the day of temptation,” “the day of trouble," "the day of adversity,". "the day of wrath.” Inhabitant is sometimes used by the figure for inhabitants, and man for men; as, “And now, O inhabitant of Judah, judge, I pray you, between me and my vineyard” (Is. v. 3), in which the appeal is made to the whole population of Jerusalem and Judea. In Isaiah vii. 18, 19, the fly and like the metonymy, on the connexion of place with that which occupies it, of a cause with its effect, or of an instrument with the agent who uses it; but of the relation of a part of a thing, or one of a kind, to the whole, or of the whole to a part. It is used much less frequently even than the metonymy, and far less than the metaphor and simile.
What is the synecdoche! On what is it founded? How does it differ from the metaphor, simile, and metonymy! Give examples of it.
Expressions like the following-he is the first orator of the age; he is the greatest of the living poets ; she is the most elegant woman of the time -are often used of those who are only distinguished for oratory, poetry, and beauty, not the most eminent for them.
The objects to which the figure is applied actually have the qualities that are ascribed to them; as it is only those who are truly beautiful who are said to be most beautiful, only those who are large who are called giants, and only those who are dwarfish who are said to be pigmies; and the figure lies in representing their peculiarities as greater than they are. It differs, accordingly, from the comparison and metaphor, which are founded on resemblance; from the metonymy, which is founded on the relation of different things to one another; and from the synecdoche, which is founded on the relation of a part to the whole, or of the whole to a part.
What is the hyperbole? What is its peculiarity .compared to the simile, metaphor, metonymy, and synecdoche ! Give examples of it.