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the most accurate of which makes the breadth of the hither India for that included between the mouths of the Ganges and Indus) near two degrees and a quarter of longitude narrower than it



my map; at the same time that it makes the lower part of the peninsula three quarters of a degree wider than mine does. I have been enabled by means of observations of longitude taken át Bombay, Cochin, Madras, Calcutta, Agra, &c. together with measured lines and surveys extended from the above places, to frame a very good ground work for my map: and, I Aatter myself, that the general outline, and principal members of it, are determined with as much precifion, as those of most European countries. The sea coasts in particular, are as correct as can be expected in a map of this scale.

In the division of HINDOOST An into soubahs, &c. I have followed the mode adopted by the Emperor ACBAR, as it appears to me to be the most permanent one: for the ideas of the boundaries are not only impressed on the minds of the natives by tradition, but are also ascertained in the Ayeneu Acbaree; a register of the highest authority. But for the lower parts of the Deccan, and the peninsula in general, this standard being wanting, I had recourse to the best information I could get, which was not, indeed, of the most perfect kind: and therefore

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I directed my attention principally to the state of the modern divisions in those quarters, the impressing a clear idea of which, is one principal aim of the work.

It must be observed, that since the empire has been dismembered, a new division of its provinces has also taken place ; by which means some foubahs now. form a part of the dominions of three or more Princes; and very few are preserved entire. These modern divisions are not

prea fent poffeffors; but the colouring also is entirely cmployed in facilitating the distinctions between them. that the modern divisions appear, as it were, in the fore ground; and the ancient ones in the back ground ; one illustrating and explaining the other.


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Considering the vast extent of India, and how little its interior parts have been visited by Europeans, till the latter

part of the last century, it ought rather to surprize us that so much Geographical matter should be collected during so short a period ; especially where so little has been contributed towards it by the natives themselves, as in the present case. Indeed, we must not go much farther back than thirty years, for the matter that forms the basis of this map. And it must not be forgotten, that the East India Company have caused a mathematical survey to be made, at their own expence of a tract equal

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in extent to France and England taken together ; besides tracing the outline of near 2000 miles of sea coast, and a chain of islands in extent 500 miles more.

Perhaps I cannot find a better mode of bespeaking from the public a favorable opinion of the map, than by particularizing the helps that have been afforded me during the construction of it. Mr. Dalrymple stands foremost on this list. With a liberality, not always to be found amongst men who possess the means of information, he has furnished me from his valuable collection, with every material in it that could contribute towards perfecting my plan. And accordingly, the most valuable of all the new matter that respects the sea coasts (the surveys made by the direction of the Bengal Presidency excepted) is taken from his collection ; and also a very considerable portion of what respects the inland parts of the peninsula, and the northern circars. It was by the help of one of his MSS. that I detected an error of about half à degree of longitude in the position of Cape Comorin, These materials, which I have thus been permitted to lay before the publick, as it were in the abstract, will afford the most extensive information, when published in detail under the direction of so able a master ; and I heartily congratulate the public on the prospect of it.

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The next Gentleman to whom I am principally indebted, is Mr. Boughton Rouse, who obligingly tranfated for me


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from the AreneACBAREE, an account of the boundaries and divisions of the western foubahs, together with a variety of other Geographical matter, much of which is so blended with other subjects, as to require a tedious, and a patient investigation. This assistance has enabled me not only to enrich the map generally with places, whose situations have hitherto been undescribed, but to new model all the western part. My obligations to this Gentleman are the greater, in that the aslistance afforded me, was at the expence of that small portion of leisure, which his public business left him.

I owe my thanks to Mr. Davy for a translation of the names in the Persian map of the PANJAB country, which he undertook at the request of Sir Robert Barker, to whom the Persian map belongs, and to whom I consider myself as equally indebted. This valuable MS. furnishes us with a clear idea of the names and courses of the five rivers, as well as the general Geography of a country that has hitherto been less known to us than any of the Indian provinces.

To Colonel Camac I am indebted for the Itinerary of Golam Moliamed, a Sepoy officer, whom he sent in 1774 to explore the roads and country between Bengal and the Deccan. I flatter myself with the hopes of receiving yet more information from him ; as the opportunities which have lately offered, have been too favorable to his spirit of enterprize and enquiry to be negle&ed.

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I also acknowledge my obligations to Governor Verelst, General Caillaud, General Joseph Smith, and to Messieurs Farmer, Ramsay, Cotsford, Price, and Townsend, for MS. maps, sketches, and various articles of information.

To the Reverend Mr. Smith's ingenuity and perseverance I stand indebted for a complete route from the banks of the Jumna river, through the centre of Hindooftan, to Bonbay. This route, by crossing a tract of country hitherto little known, and, of course, very imperfectly and erroneously described, contains much useful matter. It happened unluckily, that nothing more than a MS. Journal of General Goddard's march came to my hands, till the map was nearly compleated: but as Mr. Smith's observations had previously fixed the principal points in it, this is a matter not to be so much regretted ; and especially as I have since, corrected most of the intermediate situations by a map of the General's route.

I have borrowed largely from M. D'Apres’ New. Neptune Orientale, for the fea coasts -and islands: and also, though in a smaller degree, from M. D'Anville's maps

of Asia and India published in 1751 and 1752. When it is considered that this excellent Geographer had scarcely any materials to work on for the inland parts of India, but some vague Itineraries, and books of travels, one is really astonished to find them so well described as they are. It is with regret that I find myself. obliged to differ in opinion



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