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[9] tries * on both sides of it, is said to be in their poffeffion : fo that their dominions consist generally of the foubahs of Lahore (or Panjab) Moultan, and Sindy. They are said to consist of a number of small states, independent of each other in their internal government, but connected by a federal union t.

Timur Shaw, the successor of Abdalla, whose capital is Candahar, is in possession of Cabul, Seiftan, and the neighbouring countries of Persia; which, altogether, form an extensive kingdom. The Indus is the general boundary of the Abdalli to the east. This government was erected by Abdalla, one of Nadir Shaw's Generals, when his unwieldy einpire, like that of Alexander, fell to pieces on the demise of the conqueror.

Jeynagur, or Joinagur, a mountainous district of no great extent, is situated on the west of Agra, and between the districts of Ghod and Mewat. It is governed by a Rajah, whose capital is Joinagur. His vicinity to the Mahrattas has subjected his country to frequent ravages, but he has never been totally fubdued by them.

Joudpour, or Marwar, adjoins to Jeynagur on the fouth-west, and is, in circumstances, nearly fimilar to Jeynagur ; with this difference, that the district is more extensive, being near 200 miles from northeast to southwest. The river Puddar has its course through this country, which is a part of the foubah of Agimere, and for which Marwar is only another name : Meerta is the present capital.

Oudipour, or Cheitore, the country of the Rana, lies on the fouthwest of Joudpour, and borders on Guzerat and Malwa.

• The celebrated Mr. Jones very ingeniousy remarks, " that it is usual with the Afiatics “ to give the same names to the countries which lie on both fides of any considerable giver." Thus the province of Sindy is divided by the Indus; Bengal by the Ganges; and Pegu by the Irabatty. Probably, the facility of access to either side, by means of a navigable river and an occasional inundation, subjected each of the divisions, formed by the course of the river, to the constant depredations of its opposite neighbour; till neceffity produced a com promise, which ended in joining them in one community, + Dowe, Verelt. С

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The Rajah, like those of Joudpour and Jeynagur, is subject either to become tributary to, or suffer the attacks of the Mahrattas, his neighbours. Cheitore was the ancient capital ; a place much celebrated for its strength, riches, and antiquity, when it was taken and despoiled by Acbar in 1567: Oudipour is the present capital.

Of the countries of Nagore, Pucanere-Jaffelmere,. Amercot, and those bordering on the lower part of the course of the river Puddar, we know little of at present, except that they form a number of petty rajahships.

· The Mahratta states occupy all the southern parts of Hindoostan proper, and a great part of the Deccan, Malwa, Berar, Oriffa, Candeish, and Visiapour; the principal part of Amednagur, (or Dowlatabad) half of Guzerat, and a small part of Agimere, Agra, and Allahabad, are comprized within their extensive empire ; which extends from sea to sea, across the widest part of the peninsula; and from the confines of Agra northward, to the Kistna southward; forming a tract of about 1000 British miles long, by 700 wide.

This extensive country is divided amongst a number of Chiefs or Princes, whose obedience to the Paishwa, or Head, is, like that of the German Princes to the Emperor, merely nominal at any time ; and, in some cases, an opposition of interests begets wars, not only between the members of the empire themselves, but also between the members and the Head. In fact, they are seldom confederated but on occafions that would unite the most discordant states ; that is, for their mutual defence : for few occasions of foreign conquests or plunder, are of magnitude enough to induce them to unite their armies.

Was I inclined, I want ability, to particularize the possessions and situations of all the Chiefs that compose the Mahratta state. I shall therefore attempt only to mention the principal ones, or such as have appeared on the theatre of the present war,

The Paishwa, who is the nominal Head of the whole, resides at Poonah, which is situated at the southwest extreme of the empire, and within a hundred miles of Bombay. He possesses the principal

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[ ] part of Visiapour, Baglana, Dowlatabad (or Amednagur) the southern part of Candeith, and a sniall part of Guzerat.

of Guzerat. His portion of the Deccan is naturally very strong, particularly on the west side towards the sea, where a stupendous wall of mountains, called the Gauts, rises abruptly from the low country, called the Concan * ; supporting, in the nature of a terrace, a vast extent of fertile and populous plains, which are so much elevated as to render the air cool and pleasant.

The Paishwah's country, together with that of his immediate dependents and vassals, extends generally along the coast from the districts of Goa, to Cambay. Southward, he borders on Hyder Ally; and eastward on the Nizam' and the Rajah of Berar. On the north, he has Sindia and Holkar.

Sindia and Holkar divide by much the largest part of the rich and extensive soubah of Malwa. The former also possesses the northern part of Candeilh, including the city of Burhanpour; and the northeast parts of Guzerat. On the north, his poffeffions in Malwa extend to Narwah, and to within 120 miles of the frontier of Oude t. His capital is Ougein (or Ugein) near the ancient city of Mundu, the capital of the Chilligee Kings of Malwa; and from whom both he and Holkar are said to be descended. Holkar's capital is Indoor, about thirty miles on the west of Ougein. Gungadar Punt possesses the district of Calpy, which borders on the Jumna (and, of course, on the new dominions of the Nabob of Oude) eastward ; and on Sindia westward. And Ballagee, brother to Gungadur, has the district of Sagur, which lies between Sindia's eastern boundary and Bundelcund. Neither of these districts are equal, in extent, to the principality of Wales.

The Berar Rajah, Moodagee Boonllah, possesses generally the soubahs of Berar and Orissa. On the west, his territories border

* Or Cockun.

+ During the present war, Colonel Camac penetrated from that fide to the city of Sirong, more than 100 miles within Sindia's frontier. C 2

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on the Paishwah's ; on the south, on the Nizam's ; and on the north, on Mahomed Hyat's (a Pattan Rajah) Nizam Shaw's, and Ajid Sing's. On the east, his territories in Oriffa thrust themselves between the British possessions in Bengal, and those in the northern * circars ; so as to occupy near 180 miles of the country adjacent to the sea, and, of course, to break the continuity of our possessions on the sea coast. Moodajee's dominions are very extensive, being from cast to west 600 British miles, and 250 from north to south. He does not possess all this in full sovereignty; for Cattack, Ruttunpour, and Sumbulpour are little more than tributary, and are governed by his brother Bembajee. We know less of the interior parts of Berar, than of most other countries in Hindooftan; but, by what we do know, it does not appear to be either populous or rich. Nagpour is the present capital t, and the residence of Moodajee ;. and it is situated about midway between Bengal and Bombay.

Cattack, the capital of Oriffa, is a post of consequence on the river Mahanada, as it lies in the only road between Bengal and the northern circars ; and the poffeffion of this city and its dependencies, gives the Berar Rajah more consequence in the eyes of the Bengal government, than even his extensive domain and centrical position in Hindoostan.

Rajah Nizam Shaw, of Gurry Mundlah or Baundhoo, is tributary to Berar.

Futty Sing Guicawar (or Gwicker) who has been our ally during the Mahratta war, has, by us, been put in possession of Amedabad and Cambay, together with the districts in general bordering on and

• These circars, or provinces, were originally denominated from their position in respect to Madras, on which they depend : and the term northern circars has at length been adopted by the English in general.

+ Shawpour was the ancient capital, according to Ferishta. The Ayeneh Acbaree says that Berar was formerly named Werwatit ; and it is remarkable that Pliny mentions the same country under the name of Varetate; and says that it is strong in cavalry and infantry, but keeps no elephants for war.

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lying north of the river Mihie ; which river serves as a common boundary between his district of Amedabad, and ours of Broach.

These are the principal of the countries reduced into the form of governments by the Mahrattta Chiefs : but fo habituated are they to rapine and plunder, that few of the neighbouring states, but have, at one period or other, felt and acknowledged their power. Bengal and Bahar were, for a considerable time, subjected to a regular tribute ; and the Carnatic, Mysore, the Nizam's provinces, the Dooab, Bundelcund, and the southern parts of Delhi, , have been frequently overrun. However, the power of the Mahrattas appears to have been on the decline, for the last twenty years. Shut out of Bengal, the upper provinces *, and the Carnatic by the British arms, and out of Mysore by Hyder's, their field of action has been much circumscribed ; and the present war with the British power has discovered their weakness to all Hindoostan.

Of the five northern circars, Cicacole, Rajamundry, Ellore, and Condapilly t, are in the possession of the English; and Guntoor is in the hands of the Nizam. The four first occupy the sea coast from the Chilka lake on the confines of Cattack, to the northern bank of the Kistna river ; forming, comparatively, a long, narrow flip of country, 350 miles long, and from 30 to 70 wide. The nature of the country is such as to be easily defensible against an Indian enemy, it having a barrier of mountains and extensive forests on one side, and the sea on the other, the extremities only being open. Its greatest defect is in point of relative situation to Bengal and Madras, it being 350 British miles from the first, and 250 from the latter; so that the troops destined to protect it, cannot be reckoned on, .for any pressing service that may arise at either presidency. The circars, in point of strictness, appertain partly to Golconda (or the Deccan) and partly to Oriffa ; and are held of the Nizam on condition of paying him a regular tribute.

Those of the Nabob of Oude. + Condapilly circar is written in the revenue books, Mustapha-Nuggur; and Guntoor Mortizanagur.

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