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tance of the first from Golconda 17 Gos, of 4 French leagues each; and of the latter 134. Now, the distance of Coloor from Golconda, is tolerably well known to be 84 G. miles : fo that a Gos, by this account, must be about 6 G. miles in horizontal distance (or nearer 3, than 4, French leagues) and 17 of them must be equal to 110 ; G. miles ; and this will place Raölconda about 7 G. miles on the east of Ralicotte. And I think it more probable to be on the east, than on the west of it; for Tavernier mentions the crolling a river, which formed the common boundary between Golconda and Visiapour (or Bejapour) about 4 Gos or more before he came to Raölconda. This river, which can be no other than the Beemah, runs about 6 : Gos on the east of Ralicotte, and forms, to this day, the boundary of Bejapour : and Raölconda, by this account, must be between the Beemah river and Ralicotte ; that is, on the east of the latter.

If we take the Gos at 4 French leagues, without regarding the proportion arising from the calculation on the Coloor road, it will bring Raölconda very near the situation assigned. it by Montresor. But I have nevertheless adopted the former, thinking it, on the whole, the most confiftent.

The modern Universal History, vol. 6, says that the mines (Raölconda) are six days journey froin Bisnagur : but this will apply equally to either of the above positions.

Again, Tavernier says in another place, that Rzölconda is five days journey from Golconda ; and eight or nine from Bejapour. This account must be very erroneous ; for Raölconda is at least nearer: to Bejapour than to Golconda.

The Godavery river, or Gonga-Godowry, commonly called Ganga in European maps, and sometimes Gang in Indian histories; has generally been represented as the same river with that of Cattack.

As we have no authority, that I can find, for supposing it, the opinion must have been taken up, on a supposition that there was



no opening between the mouths of the Kistna and Mahanada (or, Cattack river) of magnitude suflicient for such a river as the Ganga. It could not be for the want of space sufficient for the Cattack river to accumulate in, independent of the Ganga; for the distance is as great from the mouth of the Cattack river to the Berar mountains; as from the mouth of the Godavery to the Baglana mountains. The truth is, that no just account of these rivers, any more than of the Burrampooter, had then reached any European geographer. The Ayeneh Acbaree, speaking of the Godavery, says, “ it runs into Berar from Amednagur; and continues its course into Tellingana”. Here is a declaration that the Godavery is the river that runs thro' Amednagur: And that the Amednagur river (let its name be what it will) runs from Berar into Tellingana ; that is, the country of which Warangole (or Arinkil) was the capital. Its source is within miles of Bombay. Mr. Farmer crossed it near Poonah, where it is named Gonga-Godowry; and is esteemed a sacred river.

After all, a branch of the Godavery may possibly communicate with the Mahanada, during the rainy season ; but there is certainly no authority for supposing it. The Chilka Lake, which was once thought to be an inland lake of fresh water, and had a communication with both rivers, is now known to be a salt lake contiguous to the sea, near Ganjam.

The general course of the Kistna river, as high up as Gutigui, or Catigui, in the road from Aurungabad to Sanore, is from the map of M. Buffy's marches. Above Gutigui, it is marked in two places, by the intersections of the roads from Bejapour to Goa, and Dabul. Its source is not more than 42 miles from the Ma. labar coast near Dabul. General Joseph Smith remarks, that the Kistna was fordable both above and below the conflux of the Beemah river, in the month of March : and that a few miles below the mouth of the Beemah, its bed was 600 yards wide,


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and exhibited an uncommon appearance from the number and diersity of the rocks in it.

The Beemah river is known to be a principal branch of the Kistna, coming from the north, and joining it near Edghir. It rises in the mountains on the north of Poonah, probably not many miles from the head of the Godavery, and passes within 30 miles of the east side of Poonah, where it is named Bewrah, as well as Beemah, and is also esteemed a sacred river. General Joseph Smith crossed this river, when accompanying the Nizam in 1766, about 10 miles above its junction with the Kistna, where it was fordable.

The Mandouah, or Bejapour river, is a branch of the Beemah.

There yet remains in the map, a void space between the known parts of Berar, Golconda, Orissa, and the northern circars, of near 300 British miles in length, and 2jo in breadth ; nor is it likely ever to be filled up, unless a very great change takes place in the state of European politics in India. Our possessions in the northern circars, extend no where more than 70 British miles in land, and in some places not more than 30: so that they form a lip of more than 350 miles in length ; bounded in general towards the continent, by a high ridge of mountains, which runs nearly parallel to the sea coast, the exterior boundary.

Within these mountains, and towards Berar, is a very extenfive tract of woody and mountainous country, with which the adjacent countries appear to have but little, if any, communication. We may fairly suppose that to be a country void of the goods in general esteem amongst mankind, that does not tempt either their avarice, or ambition. Although surrounded by people who arc in a high degree of civilization, and who abound in useful manufactures, we are told that the few specimens of these miserable people who have appeared in the circars, use no covering but a wisp of straw. We know not, with any degree of certainty, how far this wild country extends within the outer ridge of moun


tains between the parallels of 17° and 20°: but the first civilized people that we hear of beyond them, are the Berar Mahrattas. I think it probable that it extends 150 miles, or more. However, a party of Berar Mahrattas found their way through this country, and the Bobilee Hills in 1754 *, at an opening called Salloregaut, in the Cicacole circar.

• Orme, Vol. ift. 373€



The Countries contained in that Part of the Peninsula,

lying South of the Kistna, or KHRISHNA River.


HIS tract, which in extent is not a seventh part larger than

the Bengal provinces, has, by its political divisions, and by the talents and ambition of its Princes, of late years, furnished more matter for speculation and history, than, perhaps, all the rest of the empire put together. But although it has been the theatre of repeated wars between the European powers and the natives, so ample a supply of geographical matter has not been furnished, as by the wars and negociations in the north. The geography of some of the western parts of this peninsula, are as little known to us, as that of the central parts of Hindoostan.

The figure of this tract is a triangle, of which the course of the Kistna river forms the base, and the coasts of Malabar and Coromandel the sides. Its extent from the Kistna to Cape Comorin, which forms the apex of the triangle, is about 600 British miles ; and its breadth in the widest part, that is, from Masulipatam to Gheriah, about 500.

The construction of the sea coasts, has been described in the first fection, and that of the course of the Kistna river in page 75.

I understand that the country from Madras to Ooscotta westward; and from about Pondicherry and Tingrecota southward, to Chandeghere northward ; or, in other words, between the parallels of 12 and 14 degrees of latitude, is described from measured routes in Mr. Montresor's MS. map at the East India House; and in the printed map inserted in the second volume of Mr. Orme's elegant


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