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not much out of the general line of the route; and all the intermediate places are proportioned to it.
From Burhanpour, where Goddard's route finally strikes out of Upton's, to Surat, we are again as much in the dark, as to the bearings of the intermediate parts of the road; and the distance of one day's march is totally omitted in the Journal, or Itinerary. The whole distance, on summing up the particulars, is 223 B. miles; and if we allow 16 for the march omitted *, it will be 239. But it is noted at the bottom of the page, that " the whole distance is 245 miles”; so that there must be 6 miles sunk in the detail. Therefore, taking the distance by the road at 245 B. miles, or 209 G. ones, and allowing only one mile in ten for the windings of the road, as it is, generally speaking, a very straight one, the horizontal distance between Burhanpour and Surat comes about 188 G. miles; which in that parallel is equal to 3 degrees 21 minutes of longitude,
Now the difference of longitude between these places by the afsumed situation of Surat in my map, and that of Burhanpour in Mr. Smith's, is 3° 31't, or 10 minutes greater than by the above account, I have not seen any list of Mr. Smith's observations, and therefore do not know for certain, whether or not he took any at Burhanpour, or whether it is placed by deduction from some other observation. In this state of uncertainty with respect to the exist. ence of any observation of longitude at Burhanpour, and relying on the positive information concerning the distance in the MS. journal; and also on the longitude of Surat as deduced from Boinbay ; and moreover, supposing it hardly possible that any road in that country can wind less than one mile in ten, I have placed Burhanpour
in 76° 6', or according to the difference of longitude given by the MS. Journal. Its latitude is about 21° 19'.
* This omission occurs between Burhanpour and Saunkley ; in which interval, Tavernier reckons 24 coffes, and the Journal only 30 miles : so that we may suppose that at least 16 miles zre omitted. + Surat, page 27
72. 45 Burhanpour
It is remarkable that Tavernier reckons the same distance as the Journal, to within half a mile: for his 132 cosses, at the rate of 42 to the degree, come out just 188 ; G. miles *
The road from Poonah to Nuffergur (or Nusseratpour) and Soangur, was. described by Messrs. Farmer and Stewart, during the time that they remained as hostages in the Mahratta camp; and the particulars were obligingly communicated to me by Mr. Far
This ascertains the situations of Casserbarry and Coondabarry Gauts; and, in particular, that of the city of Amedabad, the capital of the soubah of the same name; and the last place of residence of the Emperor Aurengzebe.
This city has been generally placed about 50 miles to the southeast of its true position.
Tullowgom, Burgom (or Worgaum) and Condolah t, are from the same authority; as well as Nassick-Trimuck, Zineer, and a variety of other useful particulars. Sattarah, the nominal capital of the Mahrattas, is placed according to the report of a native of that country; that is, 30 cosses on the south east of Poonah.
The next line, in point of consequence, is that from Masulipatam to Aurungabad ; described from the marches of M. Bussy. The former of these places, according to Capt. Ritchie, is in lat. 16° 8' 30"; longitude, inferred from Madras, 81° 15' east. M. Buffy's march, as laid down in a map drawn by the late Mr. Montresor, of the engineer corps at Madras, gives the bearing of Aurungabad from Masulipatam, No. 55° 15'W. distance 358 G. miles; placing the former in lat. 19° 33', longitude 76° 6', the difference of longitude between the two meridians, being 5° 9'.
• Since writing the above, I have been favoured with the perufal of a map of Gen. God. dard's route. It was impossible to alter my map, so as to make it correspond in all cases, with Gen. Goddard's; but I have introduced such alterations and corrections, as the nature of the case would admit of: and as the route stands at present, in my map, it is not materially different from the truth. The distance between Surat and Burhanpour, in Gen. Goddard's, is given at 202 G. miles of horizontal distance; or 3° 34' difference of longitude (the bearing being nearly east and weft). This agrees so nearly with Mr. Smith's observation, that it gives room to fufpect the correctness of the MS. Journal, as it requires at least 263, in stead of 245 B. miles, to make up the horizontal distance above mentioned. + Since corrected by the plan of Gen. Egerton's march. K
Let us now examine what data we have to check this longitude of M. Buffy's, from the side of Surat : for, from the nature of an Indian march, great part of which is made in the night, it must necessarily require correction ; in the bearing at least, and, most probably, in the distance. And we may accordingly infer from some distances of Col. Peach's, and of Major Stevens's, compared with some parts of M. Buffy's marches, that this gentleman's distances are too small ; an error of a different side from what might be expected, in measuring distances hastily with a perambulator *
The position of Surat, is already accounted for in page 27; and Noopour is placed according to Gen. Goddard's measured distance from Surat ; and the bearing accords with the ideas of Mr. Farmer, who passed near this place with Sindia's army. Tavernier reckons 105 cosses between Noopour and Aurungabad, that is, 150 G. miles of horizontal distance, reckoning 42 cosses to a degree. Now, Noopour, Aurungabad, and Mafulipatam, lie as nearly as can be, in a right line, whose extreme length is 516 G. miles. Tavernier's 150, added to Buffy's 358, make up this distance to within 8 miles ;
of the whole. Therefore, as it appears, in more than one place, that Buffy's distances are too short, I have made no scruple to add these 8 miles to his distance between Masulipatam and Aurungabad; making it 366, instead of (the original) 358 miles.
With respect to the latitude of Aurungabad, I have corrected it by the computed distance between it and Burhanpour, which according to Golam Mohamed 4 is 66 cosses; that is, 94 G. miles In nearly on a meridian. This, deducted from 21° 19', the latitude of Burhanpour, leaves that of Aurungabad 19° 45', or 12' more northwardly than what is given by M, Buffy's march. These 12 minutes of latitude make an alteration of about a degree and a half in the angle of bearing : very little, considering circumstances, in a march of 500 British miles. . The alteration of the angle from N. 55° 15' W. to N. 53° 45' W. takes from the difference of longitude, as much as the 8 miles of distance on the Rhumb, add to it: so that the longitude stands as before at 76° 6'. I think there can be no reasonable objection to this mode of settling it.
• To thew that long distances may be accurately measured by a perambulator, I need only mention that during the Bengal survey, I measured a meridian line of 3 degrees with a perambulator, and found it to agree minutely with the observations of latitude. However, due allowance was made for the irregularities of the ground, wherever they occurred.
+ Golam Mohamed was a Sepoy officer sent by Colonel Camac in 1774, to explore the roads. and country of the Deccan, and to gain intelligence concerning the Mahratta powers.
I M. D'Anville reckons the same difference of latitude between the two places ; but he has placed both of them too far north by 24 minutes.
Congcoal is about 19 G. miles north west from Masulipatam, according to the supposition of Major Stevens; and also by the information of two MS. maps which I have consulted : and Ellore, by survey, is 15 į G. miles beyond it; that is, it bears N'. 7 ; W. distance 34 ; G. miles from Masulipatam.
Col. Peach's march from Ellore to Warangole in 1767, furnished materials for fixing the situation of that place, and the road leading to it. A memorandum accompanying the survey, says that its latitude is 17° 57' *. Warangole is a fortress of vast extent, and is the Arinkil of Ferishta, and the ancient capital of Tilling, or Tellingana.
Rajamundry is placed agreeable to Major Stevens's idea : for I do not find that ever it has been joined on by survey to Masuli. patam, although it has to Ellore.
The mouths of the Godavery, and the course of that river as high as Toodiguntla ; as well as the places between the Godavery and Col. Peach's march, are all taken from MSS. chiefly of Major Stevens's, lent me by Mr. Dalrymple.
The northern circars, Chilka Lake, and the road from that to Balasore, are from various authorities. The construction of the sea coast has been already discussed it. Between Rajamundry and Visagapatam, the particulars of the inland parts have been taken
Notwithstanding this assertion, the bearings and distance from Ellore place it in 18° 2'. And I much question, whether Col. Peach's engineer had any good quadrant with him. See page 21. K 2
chiefly from a large MS. map, in which Col. Ford's marches are described. Between Visagapatam and Coopilly, is taken from another MS. map, seemingly not very accurate. Between Coopilly and Tickelly, is taken from Lieut. Cridland's very accurate survey of the Tickelly district : and between Poonda and the Chilka Lake, from Mr. Cotsford's elegant map of the Itchapour district.
The Chilka Lake is partly from Mr. Cotsford, partly from Capt. W. Campbell; which latter also laid down the road from thence to Balasore, through Cattack. Unfortunately his perambulator was spoiled between Cattack and Balasore ; which prevents my getting the situation of the former with respect to Bengal, otherwise than by the bearings and proportional distances between the two places.
The mouths of the Cattack river, or Mahanada, have never been traced, and are therefore described only from report. . At the mouth of the principal channel, near False Point, is a small fortified island named Cajung.
From Cattack to Sumbulpour, is from Mr. Motte's obfervations in 1766. The distance is by computation, and the bearings taken by a compass, The latitude of Sumbulpour was also taken; but, I believe, not very accurately.
At Sonepour, or Jonepour, about 160 miles above Cattack, the rivers Tail and Mahanada unite. The former comes from the west, and is the largest river of the two, but its particular course is not known. I suppose it to be the same river, that in the western parts of Berar is named the Worda. The Mahanada comes from the north ; and, I believe, runs under Ruttunpour.
Rewan, or Rewa, in the Bundelcund country, is the most welterly point on the road leading from Allahabad to Nagpour, and the Deccan, that is determined by survey and latitude. From thence to Tetwarrah Gaut, on the Nerbudda, is laid down in a more cursory manner ; but, I believe, tolerably exact for the purposes of a