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time at the tomb of Sheik Furrid *, and then crossing the desert, came to Batnir, after a march of 60 сosses from Adjodin.

After taking and destroying Batnir, which employed only a few days, he marched on the 30th of November, taking nearly the straight road to Sammana, by way of Firouz, Surusti, Amirani, and Mounec; arriving at Sammana and joining his grand army the 8th of December +:

The march from Sammana to Delhi, though only 60 cosies, appears to have taken up from the 8th to the 24th of December; including four days halt.

Returning from Delhi, Timur made an excursion to the north east, took the city of Merat, or Mevat I, 28 cofles from Delhi, and advanced to the Ganges, near the place where it issues out of the Sirinagur mountains. Toglocpour, and the straits of Cupele, two places of victory on the eastern bank of the river, cannot now be recognised: but from Sherefeddin's account of the march, they cannot be far from Loldong; where the British army compleated their campaign in 1774, 1100 British miles from Calcutta l.

From the banks of the Ganges, he proceeded to the northwest, along the foot of the Sewalick mountains, by Meliapour, Jallindar, and Jimmoo, to the frontiers of Cashmere: and from Cashmere, across the mountainous and desert country of the Kakares $, to the Indus, which he crossed at the same place as before, and in the same manner ; and returned to Samarcand by way of Banou, Nagaz, Kermudge, Cabul, Bacalan, and Termed.

Nadir Shaw's route was the ordinary one, by Attock and Lahore; and, I apprehend, he returned the same way.

* See page 54:

+ The interval on the map between Batnir and Samana, is about 83 coffes.' It is not easy to collect the distance from Sherefeddin's account of Timur's marches : but we find he was eight days on the march. I Called Mirte by de la Croix.

|| At the time of Timur's conquest (1398) the British nation had scarcely been announced to the people of Hindooftan ; nor was it till 200 years afterwards, that they found their way thither. Who could have believed that the British conquefts would meet those of Tamerlane, in a point equidistant from the mouths of the Ganges and Indus, in 1774 ? The Gickers of Dowe.

I now

I 2

I now return to the account of the construction of the map.

Between the Puddar river, Agimere, Moultan, and the Indus, is an extensive desert, in which is situated the fort of Ammercot, or Omircout, the birth place of Acbar, and the retreat of Khodaiar *. I think it improbable that ever we shall have any geographical knowledge of

any of the inland parts, between the Puddar and Indus, more than the very vague information contained in the lodian histories. The river Puddar, from the length of its course, promises to be navigable; and, probably, it is more from the want of useful products on its banks, than from the shallowness of its channel, that it has continued so long unexplored by Europeans.

The position of Joinagur on the Puddar is inferred from Ferichta'; and Radimpour from a MS. Itinerary from Cambay to Tatta ; of which however, I can at present make no farther use. The author reckons 220 coffes between Amedabad and Tatta, going by way of Radimpour ; which agrees very nearly, with the distance

map. The road from Agimere to Jaffelmere, is from M. D'Anville ; and from Jaffelmere to Moultan, from a MS. map. The road from Batnir to Sammana and Panniput, is from M. de la Croix's history of Timur.

Cashmere, is according to D'Anville, who has improved on Bernier. I suspect that this country, which is properly a circar of Cabul, extends much farther to the north and north east, than we have hitherto imagined : for the Ayeneh Acbaree makes the Jenaub river its eastern boundary, and the Kishen river its western boundary ; and says that its length is 120 coffes.

on the

• Jones's Nadir Shaw.



The Traęt situated between the Kistna River, and the

Countries traversed by the Courses of the Ganges and Indus, and their principal Branches : that is to say, the middle Parts of India.


HIS very extensive tract is bounded on the north east by the

soubahs of Bengal, Bahar, Allahabad, and Agra; on the N. W. by the course of the river Puddar; on the east and west by the sea; and on the south by the river Kistna, or Khrishnah : and comprehends in general the soubahs of Guzerat, Malwa, Berar, Orifla, Candeish, Amednagur (or Dowlatabad) Visiapour (or Bejapour) and Golconda. It is about 800 British miles in length from N. W. to S. E.; and 600 wide: and has in and about it, many points that are determined either by observations of latitude and longitude, or inferred from such points, by the means of good charts.

The fundamental points on which the construction and scale of this part depend, are as follows:

On the north and N. E. Agra, as determined by observation and survey *; and Calpy, Chatterpour, Rewan, Burwah, and Balasore, inferred from measured lines drawn from other places of observation. On the south Masulipatam, as determined by Capt. Ritchie t. On the west, Bombay, by the observations of Mr. Howe, and of Mr. Smith I; and Surat, Cambay, and Diu Point, inferred from charts and surveys ll. In the interior parts Narwah, Sirong,

• See page 36.

+ See page 21.

See page 25

See page 27


and Poonah, by observations of Mr. Smith, or by inference from them.

The construction of the sea coasts, on both sides of this tract, has been already discussed * : and I shall begin my account of that of the inland parts, with Mr. Smith's line across from Calpy to Bombay.

He set out from Calpy with Col. Upton in 1776 t, and fell into the great road from Delhi to the Deccan, at the city of Narwah; which is situated on the river Sindah, near the entrance of a famous pass, noted in the Ayeneh Acbaree by the name of Burra Diury, but called in Mr. Smith’s map, Lellymudge. From Narwah, he proceeded to Sirong, a city of Malwa, subject to Madagee Sindia : and from thence to Burhanpour, the capital of Candeish, and formerly of the Deccan. This is yet a Aourishing city; and it is situated in a delightful country. In his way to this place froni Sirong,

he crossed the famous river Nerbuddah ; formerly the reputed boundary of the Deccan, to the north. From Burhanpour, he went to Poonah, the capital of the Mahratta empire, crossing the heads of the Godavery and Beemah rivers in his way: and from Poonah to Bombay. During all this route, he took observations of latitude and longitude, as often as opportunity offered; which was not unfrequently: and with these, together with the intermediate bearings of the road, he constructed a map, which is no less valuable on the score of its general accuracy, and extensive information ; than curious, by the novelty of its subject. We had then, for the first time, a geographical line on which we could depend, drawn across the continent of India, through the principal points between Agra and Poồnah ; and which, by establishing so many interesting positions, has enabled me to correct several routes, which, without it, would have remained very indeterminate. Narwah, for instance, corrects the bearing and distance of the road between it, and Agra;

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his map

Sirong, the road to Ougein and Mundu ; and Burhanpour, the position of Aurungabad, and the bearing of the roads to Surat, Hydrabad, and Nagpour.

Mr. Smith reckons Poonah i degree 15 minutes to the east of Bombay; and as we have already fixed the longitude of that place at 72° 40' *, Poonah must be in 73° 55'. It must be observed that Mr. Smith places Bombay 5 minutes more to the east than I do ; Poonah therefore being in the same predicament, stands at 74° in

Its latitude is 18° 30' +. Burhanpour, according to Mr. Smith's map, is in longitude 760 21'; or by its difference of longitude from Poonah 76° 16'. More will be said on this subject, when we come to discuss General Goddard's route. Sirong, Mr. Smith places in 78° 3', which, with the allowance of the five minutes, will be 77° 58'. By some unaccountable mistake, I have placed it in the map 4 minutes too far west.

General Goddard's celebrated | march from Calpy on the banks of the Jumna, to Surat, has only been communicated in the form of an Itinerary, with the distances, as measured by a perambulator; but without bearings, or any other help to ascertain the direction of it. Between Calpy and Chatterpour, two points fixed by sure vey and latitude, there is no great difficulty in laying down the particulars. But much difficulty arises in assigning the position of any point between Chatterpour and Hurdah ; the place where Goddard's route falls into Upton's (or Smith's) a space of more than 250 B. miles. Hufnabad Gaut is about 60 B. miles, by the road, to the N. E. of Hurdah ;. and I have placed it, on a supposition that it is

. See page 25.

+ Since the construction of the map, I have seen a plan of Gen. Egerton's march towards Poonah, with a continuation of the road to that capital. The bearing of Poonah from Bombay, is there exactly the same as Mr. Smith reckons it: but the distance exceeds Mr. Smith's by about 3 G. miles. I apprehend that the distance was measured no farther than Tullowgom, which is about 14 G. miles (in horizontal distance) short of Poonah.

Although Col. Leslie took the command during the early part of the march, yet he died before it was advanced much more than an eighth part of the way towards its place of destination,



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