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the rivers crossed by Alexander, during his famous expedition into India; of which more will be said hereafter.
Besides the places found in this map, I have inserted others, from the authority of the Ayeneh Acbaree ; several from implied situations in Ferishta ; others from Sherifeddin's history of Timur * (particularly his march from Toulouba to Adjodin and Batnir) and others from various MSS. in my possession. The division of the country, is entirely from the Ayeneh Acbaree.
The town of Adjodin, often mentioned by Ferishta, and Sherifeddin, is recognized in the MS. map, by the circumstance of its containing the tomb of Sheik Furrid, which was visited by Timur. In the map it is called Paukputton ; but it perfectly answers to the position of Adjodin, as described by the above authors; and is a point, on the fixing of which a great many others depend.
The next river to the east of the Sinde, or Attock, and the the westmost of the five rivers, is, in modern language, called Behat, or Chelum; whose general course is nearly parallel to that of the Attock, but its bulk is less. This is the famous Hydaspes of Alexander, and said by the Ayeneh Acbaree to be anciently called Bedifta. It runs through Cashmere, and was supposed by M. D'Anville (tho' erroneouly) to join the Sinde at Attock. Tavernier seems to have led M. D'Anville into this mistake; which has finally been the occasion of misplacing, and of course misnaming, all the other four rivers.
The second river is the Jenaub, or Chunaub; and is the Acesines of Alexander. The third is the Rauvee, or Hydräotes of Alexander ; on the south bank of which stands the city of Lahore. These three rivers successively unite with each other at some distance above Moultan; and form a stream equal to the Indus itself. Its rapidity and breadth are particularly remarked by the historians of Alexander and of Timur.
• Translated by M. de la Croix.
The fourth river is the Beah, or Biah; and the fifth is the Setlege, or Suttuluz. These two rivers unite about midway between their springs, and their junction with the Indus; and their mixt waters properly bear the name of Setlege. Some authors, Sherefeddin in particular, call it Biah ; and from the indiscriminate use of the two names, much confusion has arisen *.
The Setlege, thus formed by the joint waters of the two rivers, is the Hyphasis of Alexander, and is a very considerable river, being navigable 200 miles above its conflux with the Indus. It passes on the south of, and not far from, the city of Moultan ; and about 80 miles below it, according to the Latin Itinerary, it falls into the Indus.
The Panjab country having been in the route of the three great conquerors, Alexander, Timur (or Tamerlane) and Nadir Shaw; it may not be amiss in this place to trace the line of their routes to
I take it for granted, that Alexander crossed the Indus | at the place where the city of Attock now stands ; as it appears to have been in all ages, the pass on the Indus, leading from the countries of Cabul and Candahar, into India : and this is strongly indicated by the circumstance of Acbar's building the fortress of Attock, to command it. Mr. Fraser, in his
Mr. Fraser, in his history of Nadir Shaw, says, “ there is but one place where an army can conveniently be trans
ported, the stream being so rapid in most parts. There is a “castle commanding that passage, called the castle of Attock.” Attock then, must stand on the site of the Taxila of Alexander. From thence, as his intention appears to have been to penetrate
* The modern European Geographers have added to these names, those of Caul and Dena. Ptolemy calls it Zaradrus.
+ I purposely omit the name of Turmechirin Cawn, a descendant of Gengis, or Zingis. Cawn, who made an irruption into Hindootan about the year 1240; because the particulars of his route are wanting: Sherefeddin mentions, in one place, that he crossed the Jenaub at Toulouba ; and in another, that he besieged the city of Merat in the Dooab - But Ferishta confines the exploits of this descendant of Zingis (for his name is not mentioned) to the Panjab country. 1 About 326 years before Christ.
by the shortest way to the Ganges, he would proceed by the ordinary road to that
part of the bank of thc Hydaspes (Behat) where the fortress of Rotas now stands ; and here he put into execution his stratagem for crossing the river, whilst the opposite shore was possessed by Porus. After crossing the Acesines (Jenaub) and Hydraotes (Rauvee) which latter he may be supposed to cross at the place where Lahore now stands, he appears to be drawn out of the direct route towards the Ganges, to attack the city of Sangala, or Sagala, most probably lying between Lahore and Moultan. From Sangala, he proceeded to the river Hyphasis (Setlege) most probably between Adjodin and Debalpour, by the circumstance of the deserts being between him and the Ganges. For the country between the Beah and the Ganges, is fertile and well inhabited ; but that between the lower parts of the Setlege and the Ganges, has really a desert in it; as Timur experienced in his march from Adjodin to Batnir. The distance between Alexander's position on the Hyphasis (Setlege) and the Jumna (as given by Pliny) accords with this opinion. He gives it at 336 Roman miles ; which, by a proportional scale formed from his distances in known places, reaches from the banks of the Jumna, to a point a little below the conflux of the Beah and Setlege *. But had Alexander been as high up the river, as the place where the great western road crosses from Lahore to Delhi, he would have been only 230 such miles from the Jumna.
This opinion is (I think) yet farther strengthened, by the account of what happened immediately after : I mean, his recrossing the Hydraotes (Rauvee) and then incamping on the bank of the Acesines (Jenaub) in a low situation, and where the whole country was flooded, on the coming on of the periodical rains; which circumstance obliged him to move his camp higher up the river, into a more elevated country. This agrees perfectly with the descriptions of the country. The lower parts of the courses of the Je
naub and Rauvee are really through a low country; and those are also the parts nearest to Adjodin, and Debalpour; between which places, I suppose, Alexander's altars were erected. How much
he removed, may be judged by the circumstance. of his fleet's being five days in dropping down from the encampment, to the conflux of the Hydaspes and Acesines (Behat and Jenaub) for as the length of the voyage from Lahore to Moultan is 8 days, at the same season of the year, we may place the site of the encampment about 20 miles below the town of Gujerat. Here he embarked, and proceeded to Malli, doubtless Moultan ; and possibly the famous city of the Oxydracæ, in the escalade of which, Alexander was exposed to so much danger, may be the present Outch, or Atcha; now included in the Moultan province. From thence, his course was down the Indus, to Patala (the present Tatta) where he and Nearchus separated; the first to conduct the army thro' the deserts, to Persepolis ; and the latter to conduct the fleet along the Persian coast, to the Euphrates *.
The next conqueror, in order of time, is Timur, or Tamerlane. He, I apprehend, also crossed the Indus + at the place where Attock now stands (and not at Shehinkot, or Dincot, as some have supposed) and my reason for thinking so is, that immediately after his crossing it, the Chiefs of the Jehud, or Joud Mountains (called Coudgioud by de la Croix) made their submissions to him ; which they would hardly have done, had he not been on the confines of their country. The Jehud Mountains are those which extend from Attock, eastward to Benbur, or Bember #.
It may appear extraordinary that Alexander should, in the course of a few months. prepare so vait a feet for his voyage down the Indus; especially as it is said to be the work of his army. But the truth is, that the Panjab country, like that of Bengal, is full of navigable rivers ; which, communicating with the Indus, form an uninterrupted navigation from Cathmere to Tatta : and, no doubt, abounded with boats and vessels ready constructed to the conqueror's hands. I think it probable, too, that the vessels in which Nearchus performed his coasting voyage to the gulf of Persia, were found in the Indus. Veliels of 180 tons burthen are sometimes used in the Ganges; and those of 100 not unfrequently.
+ Over a bridge of Boats, about the middle of O&tober 1398.
| My opinion is (I think) farther strengthened by a remark in the MS. map of Panjab. A mountain near the Indus, a very little below, and on the opposite tide to Attock, is marked I
Timur's first object after crosfing the Indus, being to effect a junction with his son Peer Mahmud's army, which was then besieging Moultan, he directed his course that way, instead of taking the common road to Delhi, by Rotas and Lahore. The neighbourhood of a navigable river, being a desireable object to an army marching through a dry sterile country, he pushed for the nearest part of the Behat, or Chelum river (the Hydaspes of Alexander) where he attacked and took the fortress and island of Shab-ul-dien. After this, he marched 5 or 6 days along the banks of the Behat, till he came to the place where the Jenaub joins it. The meeting of these rivers, as has been said before, form a rapid and troubled stream : however, it did not prevent Timur from throwing a bridge over it. The town of 'Toulonba, or Tulmabini, is situated on the eastern side of the confluence t, and here he halted 6 days. About a days march from Toulonba, he crossed the Rauvee I at Jengian, near Shawnawaz |l; and here he was joined by Peer Mahmud, who had, by this time, taken Moultan. From the banks of the Rauvee, the whole army crossed the Baree Doabah g to Jehaul, near the river Setlege, where it separated; Timur proceeding with a detachment to attack Batnir ; and the grand army and baggage by way of Debalpour to Sammana, a Town on the Caggar river, about 60 сosses west from Delhi; where a general rendezvous was appointed.
Timur, after leaving Jehaul, proceeded first to Adjodin, or Paukputton , on the Setlege. Here he visited and spent some
Mount Yulluleah (or Gelali ) most probably from its being the place from whence the Emperor Gelali crosed the Indus, in his flight from Gengis Cawn in 1221. When Timur had crossed to the east side of the Attock, or Indus, he was said to be arrived in the Desert of Gelali : therefore I have no doubt but that they both crossed nearly at the same place. Gengis Cawn remained on the west side of the river. + Thirty-five coses above Moultan, according to Sherefeddin.
Falsely called the Bea, by Ferishta and Sherifeddin. il Forty coffes above Moultan, according to Sherefeddin.
See the word Doabah, or Dooab, explained in page 7. 4 Called also by Ferithta and Sherefeddin, Palan Shuckergunge.