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having been the subjects of history, or as being connected with the politics of present times.
The Jidger, or river of Mewat, * and which has no existence in any map that I have seen, appears, by Ferishta's account, to rise in the western parts of the soubah of Delhi, and to run eastward. This is strongly implied in Dowe's translation (Vol. I. page 327). He says that “Sultan Firose made a canal of 100 miles, from the Suttuluz (or Setlege) to the Jidger.” This was doubtless with a view to join the inland navigations of the Ganges and Indus; and was a noble, as well as an useful, designt. The river that runs by Fattipour, and falls into the Jumna below Agra, is named Jago in several maps, both printed and Ms. but is described as coming from Agimere. I suppose this to be Jidger, and have accordingly described it as such. Cottilah, the capital of Mewat, is not far from its banks.
Tiberhind, a fortress and province often mentioned by Ferishta, is placed according to the implied situation assigned it by that author. The same may be said of Nagore in Agimere; Haffi, Koram, Sursutti and Cottilah,
The next place, in point of consequence to the construction of this part of the
map, is Attock, a city and fortress on the east fide of the Indus or Sinde. The situation of this place is fixed by its bearings and distances from Lahore, as given in a MS. map of Panjab, (of which I shall speak more fully hereafter) and the diftance agrees also with Tavernier's account, which reckons
119 cosses between them. It is remarkable that M. D'Anville's position
Mewat is the hilly tract on the west of the Jumnah, between Delhi and Agra; possessed by the Jats.
+ By a slight inspection of the map, it will appear that this project, would, if the ground permitted of its being successfully put into execution, be one of the greatest undertakings of the kind that ever was projected; that of cutting thro' the isthmus of Suez, only excepted, We should then have seen two capital rivers, which traverse a large part of the continent of
which enter the sea at 1500 B. miles asunder; and which stretch out their arms as it were, to meet each other ; united by art, so as to form an uninterrupted inland navigation from Cabul (to Assam ! I take it for granted that this canal was never completed, otherwise we should have heard more of it, as we have of the canals leading from the Jumna. H
of this place, does not differ 10 miles from the position I have alfigned it ; although we differ considerably in the detail of the route between it and Delhi.
Moultan *, the capital of the soubah of the same name, has its Jatitude given at 29° 52' in the Ayeneh Acbaree, and in other cables ; 29° 32', by the Latin itinerary abovementioned, and 29° 40', according to Thevenot. I have taken the medium, and placed it in 29° 41'. With respect to its longitude, I have no tolerable data for it. The Ayeneh Acbaree makes it 7° 3' west from Delhi ; but we have already had occasion to remark, how little dependence is to be placed on the Indian tables of longitude. The MS. map of Panjab specifies in a written rote, that the whole distance between Lahore and Moultan is 90 cosses ; but does not give the distance between the stages, as in other parts of the map. On the other hand, Mr. John Steel, in his Itinerary, reckons the distance 144 cosses, and gives the distances between the stages; but the road is evidently a different one from that described in the MS. map: Here is a difference in the two accounts, of more than one third part, supposing Mr. Steel to have gone the direct road; and there is nothing appears to the contrary. It is a misfortune that we have no account of the distance on the great road from Delhi to Moultan, by way of Debalpour; which, together with the help of the latitude, would have given the longitude in a satisfactory manner. There is no possibility of reconciling the two accounts of 90
and 144 cosses ; and therefore I have rejected them both, and have had recourse to the bearings and proportional distances between Lahore, Attock, and Moultan, in the MS. map of Panjab +. Moultan, there, bears a little to the eastward of south, from Attock; and about 60 degrees to the westward of south, from Lahore. And
Supposed to be the Malli of Alexander. + Thevenot reckons it “ threescore and odd leagues," or about 120 coffes; but his account
the distance between Attock and Moultan, is exactly equal to that between Moultan and Lahore; which, according to the above bearings, and the latitude of Moultan, is about 11o coffes. This, then, is the position of Moultan in the map; the longitude of which is 71° 10', or 6° 35' west of Delhi ; that is, 28 minutes less than what is specified in the Ayeneh Acbaree. M. D'Anville places Moultan and Attock, in respect to each other, so exactly as I have done, that I have been able to preserve all his geography of Cabul and Candahar, together with the course of the Indus above Moultan, without any alteration of scale or bearing. The truth is, that I have no materials, of a quality proper to correct radically the Geography of those countries ; for the latitudes and longitudes in the Persian tables will by no means effect it. But though I do not think myself authorised to correct it, yet by what has appeared to me, during the investigation of the subject, I believe that both Cabul and Candahar are farther to the west, by at least a degree, than M. D'Anville has placed them, though probably not so far as is given in the Ayeneh Acbaree.
The divisions of Cabul, &c. that appear in my map, are chiefly from the Ayeneh Acbaree. The routes from Candahar to Cabul and Attock, are from Tavernier ; and that from Candahar to Moultan, from Mr. Steel. Besides these, I have introduced a few places, and corrected the names of others. But for the whole ground work of the countries west of the Indus, as well as the river itself, I am indebted to M. D'Anville.
The river called by Europeans Indus *, and by the natives generally Sinde (or Sindeh) is formed of about 10 principal streams which descend from the Persian and Tartarian mountains, on the north east, and north west. The Ayeneh Acbaree describes its source as being in Cashgur and Cashmere ; by which it appears
Nilab is a name sometimes applied to the Indus by Ferithta, and other Indian historians: however, I apprehend that the Nilab is one of the western branches of the Indus, and runs under Irjab and Nagaz. H 2
that the people of Hindoostan consider the north east branch as the true Sinde. From the city of Attock, in about latitude 32° 20', downwards to Moultan, it is commonly named the river of Attock, which in the Hindoostan language, imports forbidden ; probably from the circumstance of its being the original boundary of Hindoostan on the north west; and which it was unlawful for the subjects of Hindoostan to pass over, without special permission. Below the city of Moultan, it is often named Soor, or Shoor, until it divides itself into a number of channels near Tatta ; where the principal branch takes the name of Mehran. The river, however, when spoken of generally, is called Sinde, altho' particular parts of it are known by different names. The course of the Indus be. low Moultan, has its particulars from M. D'Anville ; but the general direction of its course, is considerably more to the west, than he describes it. This is occasioned by my placing its embouchure so much farther west than usual, in respect of Bombay (see page 28) whilst the position of Moultan remains nearly as it formerly was. I observe that most of the old maps of India give the Indus much the same course as I have done.
The Latin Itinerary beforementioned, gives the names of many places, and some latitudes, on the Indus. It places the fortress and city of Bhakor, which the Ayeneh Acbaree says, is the ancient Mansurah (though D’Anville says the contrary) in latitude 27° 12'; Tatta in 24° 20'; and Bunder Lawry *, in 24° 10'. All these, I take to be from 20 to 30 minutes too far south,
Moultan is about the same distance from the sea, as Allahabad ; that is, about 800 B. miles by the course of the river; and our author was 21 days in dropping down with the stream, in the months of October and November ; when the strength of the land floods were abated.
The boundaries of the provinces of Moultan and Sindy on the west, extend a considerable way beyond the bank of the river ; that
Called also Bunder Laheri.
is to say, from 50 to 100 miles. The country is in general flat and open
from Moultan to the sea ; and the province of Tatta itself (the Patale or Patala of Alexander) is said to resemble Bengal, not only in the flatness of its surface, richness of soil, and periodic cal inundations; but also in the food of its inhabitants, which is chiefly rice and fish. The site of the ancient capital, Homnabad, is near Tatta ; and, in the time of Acbar, some considerable ruins of it were remaining : particularly the fort, which is said to have had an astonishing number of Turrets to it. Tatta is made fynonymous to Daibul, in the Persian tables (which were obligingly lent me by Mr. Jones, and are those mentioned in his preface to Nadir Shaw) where it is placed in 24° 10'.' The Latin Itinerary says 24° 20', and D'Anville 24° 40'.— I have placed it, according to its reputed distance from the mouth of the Sinde, which brings it to 24° 45' *.
I return now to the country of Panjab, or that watered by the fine eastern branches of the Indus. Here some new matter offers ; having before me, a map of this country drawn by a native, and preserved in the archives of government in Hindooftan. The names were obligingly tranlated by Mr. Davy, at the request of Sir Robert Barker. The tract, of which this
serves as a ground work, is a square of about 250 B. miles; and includes the whole foubah of Lahore, and a great part of Moultan
proper. The points of Lahore, Attock, and Sirhind (the fixing which, I have before given an account of) determine the scale of the map; the intermediate distances from place to place in it being given in writing, and not
by a scale.
I consider this MS. as a valuable acquisition ; for it not only conveys a distinct idea of the courses and names of the five rivers, which we never had before : but sets us right as to the identity of
• Pliny reckons the length of the Patale, or Delta of the Indus, at 220 Roman miles; in which he was very near the truth, it being about 210.