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or become arable land, whose foil is chiefly composed of brick dast. The principal ruins are, a mosque lined with black marble, elaborately wrought; and two gates of the citadel, which are strikingly grand and lofty. These fabricks and some few others, appear to owe their duration to the nature of their materials, which are less marketable, and more difficult to separate, than those of the ordinary brick buildings; which have been, and continue to be, an article of merchandize; and are transported to Moorfhedabad, Mauldah, and other places, for the purpose of building. These bricks are of the most solid texture of any I ever saw; and have preserved the sharpness of their edges, and smoothness of their surfaces, through a series of ages. The fituation of Gour was highly convenient for the capital of Bengal. and Bahar, as united under one government: being nearly centrical with respect to the populous parts of those provinces; and near the junction of the principal rivers that compose that extraordinary inland navigation, for which those provinces are famed : and moreover, secured by the Ganges and other rivers, on the only quarter from which Bengal. has any

cause for apprehension. Tandah , Tanrah, or Tarrah, which was for a short time in the reign of Shere Shaw, in about 1540, the capital of Bengal, and became the established capital under Acbar in about 1580, is situatedi very near to the site of Gour, on the road leading from it to Rajemal. There is little remaining of this place, save the rampart; nor do we know for certain when it was deserted. In 1659, it was the capital of Bengal, when that foubah was reduced under Aurungzebe : and Rajemal, Dacca, and Moorshedabad, appear to have successively become the capital, after Tanda.

• Called sometimes Chawafpour Tanda, from the original name of the district in which it was ficuated,


Pundua, or Purruah, mentioned as a royal residence in Bengal, in the year 1353 *, is about 7 miles to the north of Mauldah, and 10 from the nearest part of Gour. Many of its ruins yet remain ; particularly the Addeenah mosque, and the pavement of a very long street, which lies in the line of the road leading from Mauldah to Dinagepour.

Satgong, or Satagong, now an inconsiderable village on a small creek of the Hoogly river, about 4 miles to the north west of Hoogly, was, in 1566, and probably later, a large trading city, in which the European traders had their factories in Bengal. At that time Satgong river was capable of bearing small vessels; and, I sufpect, that its then course, after passing Satgong, was by way of Adaumpour, Omptah, and Tamlook; and that the river called the old Ganges, was a part of its course, and received that name whilft the circumstance of the change was fresh in the memory of the people. The appearance of the country between Satgong and Tamlook, countenances such an opinion.

Sonergong, or Sunnergaum, was a large city, and the provincial capital of the eastern division of Bengal, before Dacca was built ; but it is dwindled to a village. It is situated on one of the branches of the Burrampooter, about 13 miles south east from Dacca; and. was famous for a manufacture of fine cotton cloths.

• Dawe ift. 34.0.



The Traęt occupied by the Course of the River Indus and

its principal Branches : with the adjacent Countries on the South and East, as far as the River PUDDAR, and the City of Agra. T

HIS part comprehends in general the foubahs of Cabul,

Lahore (or Panjab) Moultan, Sindy, Agimere, and the western parts of Agra and Delhi : and is about 700 B. miles in length from north west to south east; and from 350 to 750 in breadth. It is bounded on the east, by the mountains of Little Thibet, and Sewalick, and by an imaginary line drawn from Hurdwar to Agra; on the south, by the river Puddar; on the west, by the Arabian sea, and Persia; and on the north, by the mountains called HindooKo, which separate Cabul from Bucharia in Tartary.

Delhi, the capital of Hindoostan in latter ages *, is 40 computed coffes to the north west of Ramgaut, a point ascertained by the Bengal survey : and its latitude, according to Claud Boudier, is 28° 37'. This Data plates Delhi in 77° 45' east longitude, which is only 5 minutes different from Claud Boudier's observation (77° 40') Beyond Delhi, westwards, we launch, as it were, into a wide ocean, in which we have no points determined mathematically, by which we can ascertain the length and direction of the route ; except the computed distances between places, and some latitudes and longitudes, taken with little precision, if we may judge by a comparison of some of the observations from the same catalogue, with those

* We first hear of Delhi as the capital of Hindooftan about the year 1200. It is supposed to have been founded by Delu, about 300 years before our Æra. It Mould be written Dehly.


taken by Europeans. For instance, the · latitude of Jion pour and Burhanpour are from 21 to 25 miles too far north, in the Ayeneh Acbaree ; Oude, 35 too far north ; and Delhi, 22 too far south. We have therefore little reason to suppose that any of the others are much nearer the truth ; nor have we any rule to guess on which fide the error lies. The longitudes are still more vague; as for instance :

By the A. A. By the Map. Difference. The difference of longitude be

} 3° 28 4° 43' 1° 15' tween Delhi and Oude is Delhi and Jion pour


8 10.40


4. 28

Here the medium of the difference is 12 minutes too little, in each degree.

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In these places, altho' the longitudes in the map are not determined with precision, we may still perceive that the Ayeneh Acbaree is much out. The difference on a medium here is l' in each degree too much. From such kind of materials, nothing very accurate can be expected : and therefore I have never had recourse to them but in a very few cases, where every other species of information has failed.

The first point beyond Delhi which I have any kind of data for fixing the position of, is Lahore, a capital city in the Panjab *, and formerly a royal residence. This place is said by Tavernier to be

* Panjab, or the country of the five rivers, is a natural division of the country contained be. tween the 5 eastern branches of the Indus.


ing it.

191 cofies from Delhi ;. and by a MS. itinerary (of John Steel, dated 1614) 189. The medium, 190 cosses, taken at 42 to the degree, is 271 G, miles. Its latitude in the Ayeneh Acbaree, is 31° 50', in another Indian table 31° and in a Latin MS. itinerary, dated 1662, 30° 30' *. The medium of these three accounts is about 31°7, but I have placed it in 31° 14', as that position accords best with


idea of the distance between it and Moultan; and with respect to its longitude, it is determined by the aforesaid distance of 271 G. miles from Delhi, to be in 73° 33'.

Lahore is a very important point to be settled, as it regulates the positions of all the places between it and the Indus : and therefore we have reason to regret that we have not better authority for.fix

The Ayeneh Acbaree places it i degree 4 minutes to the west of its assumed position, which could not be the case, even if its whole distance from Delhi was in longitude. The situation of Sirhind, which is nearly midway between Delhi and Lahore, is regulated by a MS. itinerary. It is a very ancient city, and lies near the confines of Lahore.

The country in general on the north, south, and west of Delhi, to the frontiers of Lahore, Moultan, and Agimere, is described from various MSS. and memorandums : but it would be very tedious, and of little use, to enumerate every particular that has been taken from them, or to quote my authority for so doing.

I am not perfectly clear concerning the course of the Caggar river (called Kebker by D'Anville, and apparently the ancient Hesidrus). That branch of it which runs by Tanasserai, or Tannasar, is mentioned by Ferishta under the name of Sursutty. We must be content to remain in ignorance concerning both this, and many

other particulars of Indian geography; and satisfy ourselves with having the situations of places that are the most interesting, either from

* It should be observed, that all the latitudes in this itinerary are too far south. The latitude of Agra is fet down at 26° 45', tho’ its true latitude is 27° 15: And Moultan in 29° 32', and Tatta in 24° 20'; which places are commonly taken at 290 52', and 24° 40'. 2


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