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part of the Ganges nearest to it; or about Moonygurry: 286 more will reach to Canoge; which being at the conflux of the Calini river with the Ganges, and also a large place, would make me sufpect that Calinapaxa * was meant for it: and 228 more will reach to the conflux of the Ganges and Jumna ; that is, to Allahabad. This I think furnishes a convincing proof that Pliny's distances are well proportioned to each other, as far as we have data for making a just comparison. Between the Indus and Hyphasis (Setlege) the proportions do not hold so good. For instance, between the Indus and Hydaspes (Behat) Pliny reckons 120 miles ; which on my map is 135 (supposing that Alexander came by Rotas, the ordinary route: for had he taken the same road with Timur, the distance would be less than 120). And again, between the Hydaspes and Hyphasis, Pliny reckons 390 miles; of which distance no more than 300 can be made on the map, by, the ordinary route towards Sirhind; and 350 supposing he went towards the lower parts of the river ; which I think highly probable, for reasons that will be hereafter assigned. But as the country between the Hydaspes and Hyphafis, was the seat of war; in which Alexander was undoubtedly often led out of the direct route, it cannot be expected that this part of the distance should be so well ascertained as the others.
Between Alexander's position on the Hyphasis, (Setlege) and the Jomanes (Jumna) Pliny reckons 336 miles, which exceeds: the distance between these rivers in the line of the great road between Lahore and Delhi, by about 106 miles : and this distance is not ascertained by the march of an army, but by order of Seleucus Nicator ; and is therefore as worthy of belief as the account of the distance between the Jumna and Ganges, which was done at the same tiine. But 336 miles is really the distance between the Jumna and that part of the Hyphasis (or Setlege) below the conflux
* This term I apprehend Pliny used, rather to convey, an idea of its local position ; than as, its proper name.
of the Bea: which I suppose to have been Alexander's position when he erected his altars.
Pliny then proceeds to state that Palibothra is 425 miles below the conflux of the Ganges and Jumna; and the mouth of the Ganges 638 below that; or 1063 below the conflux. It is true that this distance on the map is only 1000 such miles by the road; but we ought to reflect, that our own ideas of this distance did. not come nearer the truth, after we had had an intercourse of near two centuries, with India; and indeed until the present time : for it will be found that M. D'Anville's map of India published in 1752, represents the distance in question as much short of the mark, as Pliny goes beyond it. Therefore by this account Palibothra should be 425 parts in 1063, of the distance between Allahabad and the mouth of the Ganges; or nearly about the town of Bar, 40 miles below Patna.
We can hardly doubt after this account of Pliny's, but that some very large city stood nearly in the position which he afligns to Palibothra ; but that this city was the capital of India, and the place visited by the Grecian Ambassadors, I do by no means suppose. I rather incline to think that the city meant by Pliny, stood on the site of Patna ; and that the true Palibothra was no other than Canoge, or Kinnoge, for reasons which I shall presently shew.
Canoge, the ruins of which are of a very great extent, was for a series of ages the capital of Hindoostan ; but it is now reduced to the size of a middling town. It is situated on the right bank of the Ganges *, near the place where the Calini river (or Collynuddy) joins it. It is said to have been built more than 1000 years before our æra; and is mentioned as the capital of Hindoostan under the predecessor of Phoor, or Porus, who fought against Alexander t. The successor of Porus, Sinsarchund (the Sandrocotta of the Greeks)
paid a tribute to Alexander's successors : and Jona, the second in succession from Sinsarchund, reigned at Canoge *. We have no reason to suppose that the capital was removed from Canoge, in the interval between the time of the predecessor of Porus, and the time of Jona; and therefore Canoge was without doubt the place where the Ambassadors of Seleucus were received, about 300 years before our æra : and this place the Ambassadors mention by the name of Palibothra. In point of extent and magnificence, Canoge answers perfectly to the description given of Palibothra. The Indian histories are full of the accounts of its grandeur, and populousness. No longer ago than the sixth century, it contained 30,000 shops, in which beetelnut, which the Indians, (almost universally) chew, as the Europeans do Tobacco, was fold. There were also 60,000 bands of musicians and singers, who paid a tax to government t. In A. D. 1018, it was seized on by the Gaznian emperors.
It has been said that Canoge is situated near the conflux of the Calini river with the Ganges. This river, though not the third in magnitude amongst the rivers of India, is yet no inconsiderable one; and as the beds of many of the lesser rivers of that country spread to a very great width, the Calini might, in a season when its bed was full, be mistaken for a much larger river than it really is.
M. D'Anville informs us | that Eratosthenus, the librarian of Alexandria, under Ptolemy Evergetes, wrote, that it appeared by the measure of a royal route ş, that the distance from the western extreme of India to Palibothra, was 10,000 stadia. M. D'Anville says in the same place, that the stadium is the rogoth part of a degree of a great circle. Now, the distance from the Indus at Attock, to Canoge, is just 9 degrees and half, which makes 9975 ftadia; or in
Dowe ift. 9, 10, 11, 2d edition. # Dowe ist, 16.
| Eclaircissemens, page 55. The route of an eastern Prince is always measured, by persons attending the camp for that purpose. G
soạnd numbers, as the other account is probably taken, 10,000 1. I think this, in some degree, corroborates my opinion, that Canoge is the same with Palibothra.
Ptolemy * places Palibothra in latitude 27° ; and between the towns of Malibi on the west, and Athenagarum on the east. The latitude given for Palibothra, is within 3 miles of that of Canoget ; and the latitudes of Maliba and Athenagarum, are nearly those of Matura, and Audiah, or Oude I: and the proportional distances of the former from Palibothra, answer minutely to those of the latter from Canoge. To this we may add, that Athenagarum is situated on the right bank of a large river, which joins the Ganges on the left, a great way below Palibothra; answering to the Gogra, og Oude river. The Uxentius Mons, by which the hills of Bundelcund and Bahar are evidently, meant (by the circumstance of their lying between Panasa, or Panna, and the head of the Adamas. river, or that of Sumbulpour and Cattack) are placed about degrees on the south of Palibothra, or in latitude 24°; and on the north side of them, and within 18 miles of its true latitude & is Panasa, which, no doubt, is intended for Panna, the famous Diamond mine.
Now, as the Bundelcund hills are only 30 miles from Allahabad, and near 2 degrees from Canoge, it appears improbable that Allahabad Tould be the place meant for Palibothra ; although it is highly probable that Canoge may.
I am of opinion that some reliance may be placed on Ptolemy's latitude of Palibothra ; for on a comparison of the latitudes of five different places between the Indus and Ganges, I find the greatest
* Afiæ, Tab. X.
24. 48 9 The same Eratosthenus computes, the extent of India from the source of the Indus, to its mouth, at 13,000 ftadia ; which, according to the above standard, makes about 12 degrees and a third. As the ancients reckoned the western branch of this river, which rises in the mountains of Hindoo-Ko(the Indian Caucasus) the true Indus, this computation will be found to be pretty just.
difference to be only 12 minutes *, between his latitudes and mine. It must not be forgotten, that the country between Panjab and Palibothra, was the part of India, of all others the best known to the ancients.
Gour, called also Lucknouti, the ancient capital of Bengal, and supposed to be the Gangia regia of Ptolemy, stood on the left bank of the Ganges, about 25 miles below Rajemal t. It was the capital of Bengal 730 years before Christ # and was repaired and beautified by Acbar Ş, who gave it the name of Jennuteabad; which name, a part of the circar in which it was situated, still bears. According to Ferishta's account, the unwholesomeness of its air, occasioned it to be deserted soon after || ; and the seat of
government was removed to Tanda, or Tanrah, a few miles higher up the river. .
No part of the site of ancient Gour is nearer to the present bank of the Ganges than four miles and a half; and some parts of it, which were originally washed by that river, are now 12 miles from it. However, a small stream that communicates with the Ganges, now runs by its west side, and is navigable during the rainy season. On the east side, and in some places within two miles, it has the Mahanada river'; which is always navigable, and communicates also with the Ganges.
Taking the extent of the ruins of Gour at the most reasonable calculation, it is not less than 15 miles in length (extending along the old bank of the Ganges) and from 2 to 3 in breadth. Several villages stand'on part of its fite: the remainder is either covered with thick forests, the habitations of Tygers and other beasts of prey ;
$ 32° 20'
Difference * Taxila, the pass on the Indus?
Attock or Attock
32° 20 Conflux of the Hydaspes and Indus 30.
29. 48 Malæta
Debalpour 30. 24 + Latitude 24° 53' lon. 83° 14'. I Dowe ift. 6.
§ 1575: A This is Ferishta’s account; but some of its present inhabitants told me that it was de erted in consequence of a pellilence, G 2