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The Colours are used to point out the Boundaries of the States now

actually existing in Hindoostan, and these are divided into five Classes, (viz.)

Class I. The British Possesions; or those of the East India ComPANY, distinguished by

RED. II. The Powers in ALLIANCE with the COMPANY, by Yellow. III. The Powers at War with the COMPANY, by GREEN. IV. States TRIBUTARY to the Poonah MAHRATTAS, by Blue. V. Neutral States, by

PURPLE and ORANCE. As the two principal of these (the Nizam and MOODAJEė Boonslah) lie

contiguous to each other, one Colour would not effect so clear a Dirtinction between their particular Boundaries, as was required.

The following are the Territories comprized in each Class.

1. Bengal and Bahar, with the Zemindary of Benares.
2. Broach, &c. Purgunnahs, and Salsette.
3. Northern Circars.
4. Jaghire in the Carnatic.

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III. Powers at War with the British. 1. Poonah Mahrattas

Bright Green. 2. Hyder Ally. Mysore



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1. Rajah of Joinagur.
2. Rajah of Joudpour.



6. Part of Bundelcund.
7. Mahomed Hyat. Bopaltol.

1. Moodajee BoonNah, the Berar Mahratta. ORANGE.
2. Nizamshaw of Gurry Mundlah, his Tributary.
3. Bazalet Jung. Adoni.
4. Nudjuff Cawn. Agra.
5. Jats. Mewat, &c.
6. Seiks. Moultan and Sindy.
7. Part of Bundelcund.


8. Nizam Ally, Soubah of the Deccan. PURPLE.
9. Shaw Allum. Delhi.
10. Zabeda Cawn. Delhi.
11. Pattan Rohillas. Furruckabad.
12. Adjid Sing. Rewan,
13. Abdalli. Candahar, &c.
14. Singboom.
15. Travancore.


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Y HINDOOSTAN, Europeans in general have understood

the tract lying between the rivers Ganges and Indus, on the east and west ; the Thibetian and Tartarian mountains on the north ; and the sea on the south. But, strictly speaking, the extent of Hindoostan proper is much more circumscribed than these limits convey an idea of. For, although it has indeed the Indus, and the mountains of Thibet and Tartary for its western and northern boundaries ; yet, on the south, according to the Indian geographers, it is bounded by the countries of the Deccan ; so that the whole peninsula * to the south of a line drawn nearly from Balasore

. I have called this tract the peninsula in conformity to the general practice; for, properly speaking, the term can no more be applied to it, than to Turky in Europe.



to Broach, is not reckoned Hindoostan. On the other hand, the Ganges was improperly applied as an eastern boundary, as it intersects, in its general course, some of the richest provinces of the empire ; whilst the Burrampooter, which is much nearer the mark, as an eastern boundary, was utterly unknown. The addition of these lands to the geographical definition of Hindoostan, bear, however, a trifling proportion to those taken from it in the peninsula. In this circumscribed state, its extent is about equal to France, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Switzerland, Italy, and the Lowcountries collectively; and the peninsula is about equal to the British isands, Spain, and Turky in Europe,

I shall not attempt to trace the various fluctuations of boundary that took place in this empire, according as the seat of government was removed from Gazna to Delhi, to Lahore, to Agra, or to Canoge, as suited the politics of the times. It is sufficient for my purpose to impress on the mind of the reader, that the provinces of Hindoostan proper have seldom continued under one head-during a period of twenty successive years, from the earliest history, down to the reign of Acbar in the 16th century. Malwa, Agimere, Guzerat, and Bengal, were, in turn, independent; and sometimes the empire of Delhi was confined within the proper limits of the province itself. Nothing less could be expected, where some parts of the empire were 1000 miles distant from the seat of Government : and accordingly, the History of Hindoostan is one continued lesson to Kings, not to grasp at too much dominion ; and to mankind, to circumscribe the undertakings of their rulers.

During the long reign of Acbar in the 16th century, the internal regulation of the empire was much attended to. Enquiries were set on foot, by which the revenue, population, produce, religion, arts, and commerce of each individual district was ascertained, as well as its extent and relative position. All these interesting and useful particulars, were, by Abul Fazil, collected into a book called the AYENEH ACBAREE, or MIRROR of ACBAR ; and which, to this


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day, forms an authentic register of these matters.

Acbar began by dividing HINDOOSTAN PROPER into eleven soubahs * or provinces, some of which were in extent equal to large European kingdoms. The soubahs were again divided into Circars, and these sub-divided into purgunnabs. If I was to apply English names to these divifions, I should style them kingdoms (or vice-royalties) counties, and hundreds t. The names of the eleven soubahs were Lahore, Moultan (including Sindy) Agimere, Delhi, Agra, Oude, Allahabad I, Bahar, Bengal, Malwa, and Guzerat s. A 12th soubah, that is, Cabul, was formed out of the countries contiguous to the western sources of the Indus, and included Candahar and Gazna ; and three new ones were erected out of the conquests in the Deccan : viz. Berar, Candeish, and Amednagur ; in all fifteen.

A flight inspection of the map will afford more information respecting the relative positions of these soubahs to each other, and to the adjacent countries, than whole sheets of writing. It may be necessary, however, to make a few remarks on the boundaries of those soubahs that bordered on the Deccan, in order to understand the extent of the new conquests.

Guzerat, then, extended southward to Damaun, where it touched on the district of Baglana, a division of Amednagur.

Malwa extended to the south of the Nerbudda river; and an angle of it touched on Baglana and Candeish on the south-west and south, and on Berar on the east. The Nerbudda formed the rest of the southern boundary of Malwa, and also of Allahabad. The government of Bengal extended to Cattack || and along the river

* It is probable that Acbar might have changed the boundaries of some of the old foubahs, by adding or taking away certain circars, by way of rendering each province more compact, and the provincial capital more centrical to the several parts of it.

+ Few circars are of less extent than the largest English counties. | Called also Illahabad.

Guzerat is by some of the Hindoos considered as lying without the limits of Hindooftan. Vide Berar Rajah's letters. ll Called allo Cuttack,

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