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The poffeflions of the Nizam, or soubah of the Deccan (the descendant of the famous Nizam al Muluck) comprize the province of Golconda, and the eastern part of Dowlatabad ; that is, the ancient province of Tellingana, or Tilling, situated between the lower parts of the courses of the Kistna and Godavery rivers. The Nizam has the Paithwah, or the Poonah Mahratta on the west, the Berar Mahratta on the north ; the northern circars on the east; and the Carnatic, Bazalet Jung, and Hyder Ally on the south. I am not perfectly clear in my idea of his western boundary, which, during his wars with the Mahrattas, was subject to continual fluctuation : but I understand generally that the river Beemah and the Visiapour mountains form his present boundary, from the Kistna, westwards to within 130 miles of Poonah ; from which point it falls back to the banks of the Godavery river, below Aurungabad : and that the Godavery itself forms nearly his northern boundary. His capital is Hyderabad, or Bagnagur, situated on the Moussi river, near the famous fortress of Golconda.

The districts of Adoni and Rachore are in the hands of Bazalet Jung (brother to the Nizam) but are held of the Nizam. The Sourapour, or Sollapour Rajah, on the west of the Beemah river, together with some other Rajahs, are his tributaries.

Probably the Nizam's own proper domains, exclusive of his tributaries and feudatories, are not in extent more than 280 miles in length, by 160 wide. Till he took possession of the Guntoor cir·car in 1780, his dominions no where touched on the sea coast.

The Guntoor * circar occupies the space between Condapilly, the southmost of our four circars, and the northern part of the Carnatic; extending along the sea coast of the bay of Bengal near fifty miles. The poffeffion of this district to the English, would have been extremely eligible, as well for the purpose of shutting out the French nation from the Deccan, as to keep open

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a communication with the northern circars, and to preserve the continuity of our poffesfions, and those of our allies.

The dominions of the Nabob of Arcot, or the Carnatic, commence on the south of the Guntoor circar, and extend along the whole coast of Coromandel to Cape Comorin. It must be understood that I mean here to include Tanjore, Marrawar, Tritchinopoly, Madura, and Tinevelly; all being appendages of the Carnatic. Under this description, the Carnatic is not less than 570 British miles in length from north to south, but no where more than 110 wide, and commonly no more than 80. Such a long narrow tract of country, bordered by an active and powerful enemy, must always be subject either to have its distant provinces cut off from its assistance, or, by dividing its force for their separate defence, endanger the safety of the whole,

The British possessions in the Carnatic are confined to the tract called the Jaghire, which does not extend much more than forty miles round Madras.

The dominions of Hyder Ally, who formerly shared the Carnatic with the Nabob of Arcot, and now contests the remainder, begin on the west of the ridge of mountains beyond Dalmacherry, Sautgud, and Attore; and extend southward to Travancore and Madura ; northward to Soonda and Visiapour, (inveloping Adoni, the territory of Bazalet Jung) northeastward to Guntoor and On. gole; and westward to the sea. They comprehend, generally, the provinces of Mysore, Bednore, Coïmbettore, Canaree, and Dindigul; besides his late conquests to the northward, which are Chit. teldroog, Harponelly, Sanore-Bancapour, Roydroog, Gutti, Condanore, Canoul, and Cuddapah,

Hyder's present territory exceeds very considerably, both in extent and revenue, that of his rival the Nabob of Arcot ; but

probably it will, for a long time, require a Prince of Hyder's talents, to prevent a state, composed of such discordant parts, from falling to pieces. It appears not improbable, that, on Hyder's death, the

division

division of the peninsula will undergo a considerable change; in
which case, the Mahrattas may become nearer neighbours to us, than
they are at present.
The dimensions of Hyder's territories are at least 400

British miles in length from north to south, and in breadth from 290 to 130; he having by much the largest share of the peninsula.

If an Englishman casts his eye over the map, and compares the extent of the dominions of the Mahrattas and of Hyder Ally collectively, with those of Great Britain and her allies, his pride will hardly suffer, on the result of the comparison. Without entering into the abstract question concerning the propriety or neceflity of the war, or the probable consequences of it, we must at least allow, that the exertions, which have been made towards the support of it, have been astonishing. One army sent from the banks of the Ganges across the continent, to counteract the designs of the French in the Deccan, and another to restore our drooping affairs in the Carnatic, are wonderful efforts; and will live in history, when the effects of them may cease to be felt.

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Memoir of a MAp of HINDOUSTAN, &c.

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great an extent of country is contained in this map, and the

quality of the materials is so various in different parts, that it became necessary, in order to prevent confusion, to divide the account of its construction into separate sections, agreeable to the natural division of the country; and, in some measure, to the nature of the materials. It is accordingly divided into fix sections :

The first contains the sea coasts and islands.

The second, the surveyed tract on the side of Bengal; or that occupied by the Ganges and its principal branches, as far west as the city of Agra.

The third, the tract occupied by the Indus and its branches.

The fourth contains the tract between the Kitna river and the countries traversed by the Ganges and Indus; that is to say, the middle

parts

of India.
The fifth contains the peninsula south of the Kistna : and

The fixth, the countries situated between Hindoostan and
China ; namely, Thibet, Bootan, Assam, Pegu, Aracan, Ava, and

part of Siam.

But, before I proceed to the particulars of the construction of the map, it will be necessary to explain the itinerary measure adopted in places where no surveys have been taken. The usual measure of this kind in Hindoostan is the coss, or crores,.commonly estimated at two British statute miles. I have not been able to get the true length of the coss, as fixed by Acbar and other Emperors; and, even if I had, it would be of no use in the present enquiry, as all my Hindoostanny itineraries and tables are in computed colles.

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I shall

I shall bring into one view such accounts of estimated distances in cofles, as I have the means of comparing with known distances, in order to determine the proportion between the coss and a part of a great circle on the globe.

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1,8

TAVERNIER's Account of Cosses.

True hor.

Horizontal
End, Colles

dilance in

dift. of a cors Geog. miles

in Geog. miles From Surat to Noopour 44

57

1,37 Burhanpour to Sirong 101

190

1,9 Sirong to Agra

190 Agra to Allahabad

220

1,6

medium Allahabad to Benares 46

615

1,3
Benares to Patna

70
119

1,7 i 1,5 Surat to Amedabad 82

125 Delhi to Agra

68

go Aurungabad to Mafu

290 lipatam

367

1,3

106
138

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1,5 1,3

1,6

By MS. Itineraries in

my

Poffeffion.
Allahabad to Fyzabad 62

81
Delhi to Lucknow 132

210 Allahabad to Renares

37 Allahabad to Agra 149

220 Agra to Delhi

76

90

61

1,3 medium 1,65 1,475 1,5 1,2)

1

Taking the medium of the whole, a coss in horizontal distance will be nearly a Geographical mile and a half. But if we reject the distance between Burhampour, Sirong, and Agra, which seems to be out of the ordinary rule (as Tavernier himself remarks that the coffes there, are much longer than any where else) the medium will be 1,43, or just 42 coffes to a degree of a great circle. This is the result of the comparison of the estimated coss with mensuration : but it must be observed that most of the examples quoted here, are from the northern parts of the empire ; and that it appeared on the construction of the Deccan, that no more than 1,4

could

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