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XV.

Mr. Pope, elsewhere, addressing himself to the LECT.
King, says,

To thee the World its present homage pays,

The harvest early, but mature the praise.
This, though not so gross, is a fault, however,
of the same kind. It is plain, that, had not
the rhyme misled him to the choice of an im-
proper phrase, he would have said,

The harvest early, but mature the crop :
And so would have continued the Figure which
he had begun. Whereas, by dropping it un-
finished, and by employing the literal word,
praise, when we were expecting something
that related to the Harvest, the Figure is
broken, and the two members of the fen-
tence have no proper correspondence with each
other :

The Harvest early, but mature the Praise.

The Works of Offian abound with beautiful and correct Metaphors; such as that on a Hero: “ In peace, thou art the Gate of “ Spring; in war, the Mountain Storm.” Or this, on a Woman: “ She was covered with " the Light of Beauty;. but her heart was " the House of Pride.” They afford, however, one instance of the fault we are now censuring : “ Trothal went forth with the “ Stream of his people, but they met a Rock:

" for

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XV.

LECT, “ for Fingal food unmoved; broken they

" rolled back from his side. Nor did they

roll in safety; the spear of the King pur“ sued their flight.” At the beginning, the Metaphor is very beautiful. The Stream, the unmoved Rock, the Waves rolling back broken, are expressions employed in the proper and consistent language of Figure; but, in the end, when we are told, «s they did not « roll in safety, because the spear of the King

pursued their Aight,” the literal meaning is improperly mixed with the Metaphor : they are, at one and the same time, presented to us as waves that roll, and men that

inay

be pursued and wounded with a spear. If it be faulty to jumble together, in this manner, metaphorical and plain language, it is still more so,

In the fifth place, to make two different Metaphors meet on one object. This is what is called Mixed Metaphor, and is indeed one of the groffest abuses of this Figure; such as Shakespeare's expresion,“ “ to take arms “ against a sea of troubles.” This makes a most unnatural medley, and confounds the imagination entirely. Quinctilian has sufficiently guarded us against it.

« Id imprimis “ eft cuftodiendum, ut quo genere coeperis " translationis, hoc finias. Multi autem «s cùm initium a tempeftate fumferunt, in.

<cendio

XV.

یہ ,Observe

« cendio aut ruina finiunt; quæ est incon: LE C T. sequentia rerum fædiflima *.”

, for instance, what an inconsistent groupe of objects is brought together by. Shakespeare, in the following passage of the Tempest; speaking of persons recovering their judgment after the enchantment, which held them, was diffolved:

-The charm diffolves apace,
And as the morning steals upon the night
Melting the darkness, so their rising senses
Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle
Their clearer reason.

So many ill-forted things are here joined, that the mind can see nothing clearly; the morning stealing upon the darkness, and at the same time melting it; the senses of men chasing fumes, ignorant fumes, and fumes that mantle. So again in Romeo and Juliet:

-as glorious,
As is a winged messenger from heaven,
Unto the white upturned wondering eyes
Of mortals, that fall back to gaze on him,
When he bestrides the lazy pacing clouds,
And fails upon the bosom of the air.

*We must be particularly attentive to end with the ! same kind of Metaphor with which we have begun. “ Some, when they begin the figure with a Tempeft, con“ clude it with a Conflagration, which forms a shameful “ inconsistency.”

Here,

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XV.

LE C T. Here, the Angel is represented, as, at one w moment, beftriding the clouds, and failing

upon the air; and upon the bofom of the air too; which forms such a confused picture, that it is impossible for any imagination to comprehend it.

More correct writers than Shakespeare sometimes fall into this error of mixing Metaphors. It is surprising how the following inaccuracy should have escaped Mr. Addison in his Letter from Italy :

I bridle in my struggling muse with pain,
'That longs to launch into a bolder strain *.

The muse, figured as a horse, may be bridled; but when we speak of launching, we make it a ship; and, by no force of imagination, can it be supposed both a horse and a fhip at one moment; bridled, to hinder it from launching. The same Author, in one of his Numbers in the Spectator, says, " There is not a single “ view of human nature, which is not suffi“ cient to extinguish the seeds of pride.” Observe the incoherence of the things here joined together, making “a view extinguish, and " extinguish feeds.”

* In my observation on this paffage, I find, that I had coincided with Dr. Johnson, who passes a fimilar censure upon it, in his Life of Addiệon.

HORACE

XV.

Horace also, is incorrect, in the following LECT. passage :

Urit enim fulgore suo qui pregravat artes

Infra fe pofitas. — Urit qui pregravat.--He dazzles who bears down with his weight;, inakes plainly an inconsistent mixture of metaphorical ideas. Neither can tạis other passage be altogether yindicated :

Ah! quantâ laboras in Charybdi,

Digne puer, meliore Hammâ ! Where a whirlpool of water, Charybdis, is said to be a fame, not good enough for this young man ; meaning, that he was unforcunate in the object of his passion. Flame is, indeed, become almost a literal word for the passion of love; but as it still retains, in some degree, its figurative power, it should never have been ufed as synonymous with water, and mixed with it in the fame Metaphor. When Mr. Pope (Eloisa to Abelard) says,

All then is full, possessing and poffeft,

No craving void left aking in the breast; A void may, metaphorically, be said to crave; but can a void be said to ake?

A good rule has been given for examining che propriety of Metaphors, when we doubt whether or not they be of the mixed kind;

namely,

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