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moral action while, at the same time, it says of life-apart from which it admits no feeling to be possible that the attainment of its last phase is the one supremely happy event.1 Pleasurable feeling, from the evolutionist's standpoint, means, and is in order to, the increase, 'intensive and extensive,' of life. Yet to the Hedonistic Buddhist, the dissolution of the conditions of renewed existence is a happy event, i.e., an event that causes pleasurable feeling in the thoughtful spectator.

I believe that the modern ethics of evolution would have profoundly interested the early Buddhists, who after their sort and their age were themselves evolutionists. And I believe, too, that they would have arisen from a discussion with our thinkers on this subject as stanch Buddhists and as stanch Hedonists as they had sat down. I admit that with respect to the desirableness of life taken quantitatively, and in two dimensions, they were frankly pessimistic. As I have already suggested,2 and have put forward elsewhere,3 to prize mere quantity of living stood by Gotama condemned as ignoble, as stupid, as a mortal bondage, as one of the four Asavas or Intoxicants. The weary, heartrending tragedies immanent in the life of the world he recognised and accepted as honestly and fully as the deepest pessimist. The complexities, the distractions, the burdens, the dogging sorrow, the haunting fear of its approaching tread, inevitable for life lived in participation of all that the human organism naturally calls for, and human society puts forward as desirable—all this he judged too heavy to be borne, not, indeed, by lay followers, but by those who should devote themselves to the higher life. To these he looked to exemplify and propagate and transmit



1 Cf., e.g., M. P. S. 62; Mahā Sudassana-sutta, S. B. E. xi. 240, 289.

2 See above, pp. lxix, lxx.

8 In an article 'On the Will in Buddhism,' J. R. A. S., January, 1898.

Cf. below, p. 290 et seq.

his doctrine. Theirs it was to lift the world to higher standpoints and nobler issues. Life in its fulness they at least could not afford to cultivate.

But if we take life of a certain quality where selective economy, making for a certain object, cuts off some lines of growth but forces others on-then Buddhism, so far from negating the will to live' that kind of life, pronounced it fair and lovely beyond all non-being, beyond all after-being. If final death, as it believed, followed inevitably on the fullest fruition of it, it was not this that made such life desirable. Final dissolution was accepted as welcome, not for its own sake, but as a corollary, so to speak, of the solved problem of emancipation. It merely signified that unhealthy moral conditions had wholly passed away.

Keeping in view, then, the notion of Good in thought, word and deed, as a means entailing various kinds of felicific result, we may see in Book I. of our Manual, first, the kind of conscious experience arising apart from systematic effort to obtain any such specific result, but which was bound, none the less, to lead to hedonistic consequences, pleasant or unpleasant (pp. 1-42). Next, we see a certain felicific result deliberately aimed at through self-cultivation in modes of consciousness called Good (pp. 43-97). And, incidentally, we learn something of the procedure adopted in that systematic culture.

The Commentary leaves us no room to doubt whether or not the phase rupūpapattiya maggam bhāveti ('that he may attain to the heavens of Form he cultivates the way thereto ') refers to a flight of imaginative power merely. 'Form = the rupa-bh a vo,' or mode of existence so called. Attainment nibbatti, jāti, sañjāti’— all being terms for birth and re-birth. So for the attaining to the Formless heavens. Through the mighty engine of



good states,' induced and sustained, directed and developed

1 Asl. 162. See below, pp. 43 et seq., 71 et seq.

by intelligence and self-control, it was held that the student might modify his own destiny beyond this life, and insure, or at least promote, his chances of a happy future. The special culture or exercise required in either case was that called Jhana, or rapt contemplation, the psychology of which, when adequately investigated, will one day evoke considerable interest. There was first intense attention by way of an exclusive sensation," to be entered upon only when all other activity was relaxed to the utmost, short of checking in any way the higher mental functions. After a time the sensation practically ceases. The wearied sense gives out. Change, indispensable to consciousness, has been eliminated; and we have realized, at all events since Hobbes wrote, how idem semper sentire et non sentire ad idem recidunt. Then comes the play of the ' after-image,' and then the emergence of the mental image, of purely ideational or representative construction. This will be, not of the sense-object first considered, but some attenuated abstraction of one of its qualities. And this serves as a background and a barrier against all further invasion of sense-impressions for the time being. To him thus purged and prepared there comes, through subconscious persistence, a reinstatement of some concept, associated with feeling and conation (i.e., with desire or aspiration), which he had selected for preliminary meditation. And this conception he now proceeds by a sort of psychical involution to raise to a higher power, realizing it more fully, deepening its import, expanding its application.

Such seems to have been the Kasina method according to the description in the Visuddhi Magga, chap. iv.,2 but there were several methods, some of which, the method, e.g., of respiration, are not given in our Manual. Of the thoughts for meditation, only a few occur in the Dhamma

1 See above, p. lxix.

2 Translated in Warren's Buddhism in Translations,' p. 293 et seq. Cf. below, Book I., Part I., chap. ii. Cf. also Rhys Davids' 'Yogavacara's Manual,' Introduction.

Sangani, such as the 'Sublime Abodes' of thought-love, pity, etc. But in the former work we find numerous lists for exercise in the contemplative life, with or without the rapt musing called Jhana.1

In the exercises calculated to bring out re-birth in the world of Form, it was chiefly necessary to ponder on things of this life in such a way as to get rid of all appetite and impulse in connexion with them, and to cultivate an attitude of the purest disinterestedness towards all worldly attractions. If the Formless sphere were the object of aspiration, it was then necessary, by the severest fetches of abstraction, to eliminate not only all sense-impression, but also all sensory images whatever, and to endeavour to realize conditions and relations other than those obtaining in actual experience. Thus, in either method a foretaste of the mode of re-becoming aspired after was attempted.

But besides and beyond the sort of moral consciousness characterizing these exercises which were calculated to promote a virtuous and happy existence in any one of the three worlds, there were the special conditions of intellect and emotion termed lok'uttaram cittam.3 Those exercises were open to the lay pupil and the bhikkhu alike. There was nothing especially 'holy,' nothing esoteric, about the practice of Jhana. The diligent upăsaka or upāsikā, pursuing a temporary course of such religious and philosophic discipline as the rising schools of

1 J. P. T. S., 1891-1893. Synopsis of the Vis. Mag., Parts II. and III.

2 In translating the formula of the Third Aruppa or meditation on Nothingness, I might have drawn attention to Kant's development of the concept of None or Nothing, in the Kritik der reinen Vernunft (end of Div. i. of Transc. Logic). Some great adepts were credited with the power of actually partaking in other existences while yet in this, notably Maha Moggallana (e.g., M. i.).

Gotama tells of another in the Kevaddha Sutta (D. i. 215), but tells it as a myth.

3 P. 82 et seq. Cf. n. 2 on p. 81.

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Buddhism afforded, might be expected to avail himself or herself of it more or less. But those 'good' dhammas alluded to were those which characterized the Four Paths, or Four Stages of the way, to the full 'emancipation' of Nirvana. If I have rendered lokuttaram cittam by thought engaged upon the higher ideal' instead of selecting a term more literally accurate, it is because there is, in a way, less of the supramundane' or 'transcendent,' as we usually understand these expressions, about this cittam than about the aspiring moods described above. For this sort of consciousness was that of the man or woman who regarded not heaven nor re-birth, but one thing only, as 'needful': the full and perfect efflorescence of mind and character to be brought about, if it might be, here and now.

The Dhamma-Sangani never quits its severely dry and formal style to descant on the characteristics and methods of that progress to the Ideal, every step in which is elsewhere said to be loftier and sweeter than the last, with a wealth of eulogy besides that might be quoted. Edifying discourse it left to the Suttanta Books. But no rhetoric could more effectively describe the separateness and uncompromising other-ness of that higher quest than the one word A-pariya pannam-Unincluded-by which reference is made to it in Book III.

Yet for all this world of difference in the quo vadis of aspiration, there is a great deal of common ground covered by the moral consciousness in each case, as the respective expositions show. That of the Arahat in spe differs only in two sets of additional features conferring greater richness of content, and in the loftier quality of other features not in themselves additional.

This quality is due to the mental awakening or enlightenment of sambodhi. And the added factors are three constituents of the Noble Eightfold Path of conduct (which are, more obviously, modes of overt activity than of consciousness) and the progressive stages in the attainment of

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