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8. The Great Awakening to the Higher Ideal.
9. The Truth of the Higher Ideal.

10. The Peace1 of the Higher Ideal.
11. The Doctrine of the Higher Ideal.
12. The Skandha related to the Higher Ideal.
13. The Sphere of the Higher Ideal.
14. The Element of the Higher Ideal.
15. The Nutriment of the Higher Ideal.
16. Contact with the Higher Ideal.
17. Feeling relating to the Higher Ideal.
18. Perception relating to the Higher Ideal.
19. Thinking relating to the Higher Ideal.
20. Thought relating to the Higher Ideal.

[The Dominant Influences in the Modes of Progress (adhipati).]

[359] Which are the states that are good?

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When he cultivates the Jhana of the Higher Ideal . . . and when, that he may attain to the First Stage, he . . enters into and abides in the First Jhāna . progress whereto is painful and intuition sluggish, and the dominant influence in which is desire, energy, a thought, or investigation, then the contact . . . the balance that arises these are states that are good.

[360] Repeat this formula in the case of the remaining three and five Jhānas.

[361] Repeat the foregoing [$$§ 359, 360] in the case of each of the nineteen remaining 'Great Methods.'

[Here ends] the FIRST PATH.

II. THE SECOND PATH.

[362] Which are the states that are good?

When he cultivates the Jhana of the Higher Ideal (the rapt meditation), whereby there is a going forth and onward, making for the undoing of rebirth-and when, that he may

1 Samatho. See above, § 54.

attain to the Second Stage, he has diminished the strength of sensual passions and of malice,1 and so, aloof from sensuous appetites, aloof from evil ideas, enters into and abides in the First Jhāna . . . progress whereto is difficult and intuition sluggish-then the contact . . . the faculty of knowledge made perfect2 . . . the balance that arisesthese . . . are states that are good.

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[Here ends] the SECOND PATH.

III. THE THIRD PATH.

[363] Which are the states that are good?

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When he cultivates the Jhana of the Higher Ideal (the rapt meditation), whereby there is a going forth and onward, making for the undoing of rebirth-and when, that he may attain to the THIRD STAGE, he has put away the entire residuum of sensual passions and of malice, and so,

1 Cf. D. i. 156 and M. P. S. 16, 17. It is striking that here and in the following answer no diminution of moho (dulness) is included. Cf., however, below, § 1134. Ignorance (= dulness) is only really conquered in the Fourth Path. The diminution is described (Asl. 238) as coming to pass in two ways: vicious dispositions arise occasionally and no longer habitually, and when they do arise it is with an attenuated intensity. They are like the sparse blades of grass in a newly-mown field, and like a flimsy membrane or a fly's wing.

2

Cf. § 296. The faith and hope of the Sotapatti, or student of the First Path, while struggling with the limitations of his stage of knowledge (ñatamariyadam, the Cy. calls them, p. 239), are now rewarded by his attainment, as a Sakadagāmi, of that deepening philosophic insight into the full implication of the Four Truths termed añña, or knowledge par excellence, and applied, in Buddhist writings, only to evolving or evolved Arahatship. Cf. below, § 555.

These, which the Cy., in connexion with the Second Path, termed collectively kilesā, are now referred to as saññojanani. See § 1229 et seq. and § 1113 et seq.

aloof from sensuous appetites, aloof from evil ideas, enters into and abides in the First Jhāna

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progress whereto is difficult and intuition sluggish-then the contact . . . the faculty of knowledge made perfect . . . the balance that arises these . . . states that are good.

[Here ends] the THIRD PATH.

IV. THE FOURTH PATH.

[364] Which are the states that are good?

When he cultivates the Jhana of the Higher Ideal (the rapt meditation), whereby there is a going forth and onward, making for the undoing of rebirth, and when, that he may attain the FOURTH STAGE, he has put away absolutely and entirely all passion for Form, all passion for the Formless, all conceit, excitement and ignorance, and so, aloof from sensuous appetites, aloof from evil ideas, enters into and abides in the First Jhana whereto is difficult progress and intuition sluggish-then the contact . . . the faculty of knowledge made perfect . . . the balance that arises-these are states that are good.

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[364a] What on that occasion is the faculty of knowledge made perfect (aññindriyam)?

The wisdom that makes for the realization of those truths that have been realized, comprehended, attained to, discerned and known-the wisdom that is understanding, search, research, searching the Truth, etc.

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These, or whatever other incorporeal, causally induced states there are on that occasion, these are states that are good.

[Here ends] the FOURTH PATH.

[Here ends] Thought engaged upon the Higher Ideal.

[PART II.—BAD STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS.

CHAPTER VI.

The Twelve Bad Thoughts (dvadasa akusalacittāni).]

I.

[365] Which are the states that are bad ?1

When a bad thought has arisen, which is accompanied by happiness, and associated with views and opinions, and has as its object a sight, a sound, a smell, a taste,3 a touch, a [mental] state, or what not, then there is

contact,
feeling,

perception,

thinking,

thought,

conception,

discursive thought,
joy,

In this connexion those constituents of the twelve thoughts which in themselves are ethically neutral are to be understood as unchanged in the connotation assigned them in connexion with good thoughts. There being for bad thoughts no other sphere of existence save the sensuous universe, this is to be understood throughout (Asl. 247).

2

Ditthigata-sampayuttam. Cf. p. 83, n. 1, with

$$ 381, 1003.

3 Rasarammanam va is inadvertently omitted in the printed text.

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2 Concentration of mind is essential to the higher life of Buddhism; nevertheless, so far is it from constituting excellence, that it is also an essential to effective evil-doing. If the mind be undistracted, says Buddhaghosa, the murderer's knife does not miss, the theft does not miscarry, and by a mind of single intent (lit., of one taste) evil conduct is carried out (Asl. 248). Cf. the Hebrew idiom rendered by the heart being set'-to do good or evil (Eccles. viii. 11; Ps. lxxviii. 8).

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3 Hate (doso) and malice (vyāpado) do not find a place among the factors of Bad Thoughts (corresponding to the place occupied by their opposites in the Good Thoughts,

1) till we come to the last four types of bad thoughts. Whereas these are accompanied by melancholy (domanassam), the subject of the first and the following three types of thought is a cheerful sinner. Joy, ease, happiness, were held to be incompatible with hate.

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