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The Four Jhanas connected with Formless Existence may be developed in sixteen combinations.

syntheses (sankhārāvasesa-sukhuma-bhavam). In so far as perception (presumably understood as being wholly introspective) has become incapable of effective functioning (patu-sañña-kiccam), the state is non-perceptual. In so far as those faint, fine conscious reactions are maintained, the state is not non-perceptual.' This oscillation about a zero-point in consciousness is illustrated by the similes quoted (not from this Cy.) by Hardy (op. cit., 264), namely, of the bowl containing just so much oil as suffices for cleansing purposes, but not to be poured out; also, of the little pool, sufficient to wet the feet, but too shallow for a bathe. Both oil and water exist, or do not exist, according to what action can be taken with respect to them. The Cy. adds that this liminal point obtains not only in saññā, but also in feeling, thought, and contact (208). The study of the threshold' of consciousness, and of the supra- and sub-liminal grades clustering about it, is familiar enough to the investigator in psychophysics. What is unfamiliar to us is the exploitation of the borderland of consciousness in the interests of ethical growth. Leibnitz might have found in the neva-sañña-nasaññāyatanam, had he had opportunity, the inspiration for his theory of petites perceptions.

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[CHAPTER IV.

Degrees of Efficacy in Good relating to the Three Realm's.

1. Good in relation to the Universe of Sense (kā māvacarakusalam).]

[269] Which are the states that are good?

When a good thought concerning the sensuous universe has arisen, which is (I.) accompanied by happiness and associated with knowledge-a thought which is

of inferior, or

of medium, or

of superlative efficacy,1

or the dominant influence in which is

desire, or
energy, or

1 The effective power or karma of all the foregoing thoughts and exercises to modify the individual's existence in one universe or another for good seems to have been, for practical purposes, distinguished under three grades of efficacy. So I gather, at least, from the comment on this curious section (pp. 211, 212): "inferior" (hinam) must be understood to mean paltry in respect of heaping up.' 'Heaping up' is in later books almost always associated with karma. Meaning to toil, more specifically to dig up, pile up, it is used to express the metaphorical notion of ever accumulating merit or demerit constituting the individual's potentiality in the way of rebirth. Cf. Mil. 109; also below, § 1059, n. 9, on 'she who toils.' The Patthana may throw more light on the subject (Asl., ibid.).

[another] thought, or
investigation ;1

or the dominant influence in which is
desire of inferior,

of medium, or

of superlative efficacy;

or the dominant influence in which is

energy of inferior,

of medium, or

of superlative efficacy;

or the dominant influence in which is [another] thought of inferior,

of medium, or

of superlative efficacy;

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1 An explanation is also needed, it seems to me, for this association of the Four Iddhipādas (M. i. 103; A. iii. 82; S. v. 264-266) with this special aspect of karma; for they lead to Arahatship rather than to rebirth in some other plane. The Cy. only states that when anyone, in the act of accumulating, relinquishes desire or the rest, that' is called inferior [in efficacy]; that when these four states are moderately or superlatively efficacious they are called. accordingly; and that when anyone has accumulated, having made desire (chando), i.e., the wishing-to-do, his sovereign, chief and leader,' then the procedure is said to be under the dominant influence of desire. So for the other three.

It is to be regretted that the Cy. does not discuss the term vimamsà (investigation), or the propriety of its position in this series of four. It would be interesting to have learnt its psychological import in relation to vitakko and vicaro. There is a suggestion of dual symmetry about the series: as chando is to viriyam (conation passing into action), so is cittam (the idea) to the discursive re-representative intellection of vimamsa. I have rendered cittadhipateyyam by the influence of another thought in accordance with the Cy. (213), where it is said to be an associated thought, or states associated with the original 'good thought.'

There is another brief comment on the adhipateyyas below, § 1034, n. 2.

or the dominant influence in which is

investigation of inferior,

of medium, or

of superlative efficacy,1

then the contact . . . the balance that arises-these are states that are good.

[270] Which are the states that are good?

When a good thought concerning the sensuous universe has arisen which is (II.) accompanied by happiness, associated with knowledge, and prompted by a conscious motive . .

or (III.) accompanied by happiness, and disconnected with knowledge

or (IV.) accompanied by happiness, disconnected with knowledge, and prompted by a conscious motive . . .

or (V.) accompanied by disinterestedness, and associated with knowledge

or (VI.) accompanied by disinterestedness, associated with knowledge, and prompted by a conscious motive. .

...

or (VII.) accompanied by disinterestedness, and disconnected with knowledge

or (VIII.) accompanied by disinterestedness, disconnected with knowledge, and prompted by a conscious motive-a thought which is of inferior . .

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1 The tabulated form adopted in this and following replies is intended not only to facilitate a conspectus of the system, but also to indicate the elision in the Pali (expressed by ... pe...) of the repetition of the unvarying framework of the reply before and after each tabulated term. The Roman numerals in this and the next reply refer to the original statement of the Eight Main Types of Thought' in Chapter I. Apparently the sensuous basis of the arammanam of each thought is not intended to be here rehearsed.

or the dominant influence in which is

desire, or

energy, or

another thought;

or the dominant influence in which is

desire of inferior,

of medium, or

of superlative efficacy;

or the dominant influence in which is energy of inferior,

of medium, or

of superlative efficacy;

or the dominant influence in which is

[another] thought of inferior,

then the contact . .

of medium, or

of superlative efficacy;

. the balance that arises-these .

are states that are good.1

2. Good in relation to the Universe of Form.

[271] Which are the states that are good?

When, that he may attain to the heavens of Form, he cultivates the way thereto, and, aloof from sensuous appetites, aloof from evil ideas, by earth-gazing enters into and abides in the First Jhana (the first rapt meditation) which is

of inferior.

or of medium,

or of superlative efficacy;

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1 In accordance with the usual procedure in the Dhamma Sangani, when combining several subjects in one sentence, the final details apply only to the last subject in the series. Hence investigation' is omitted in connexion with Thought VIII., because, presumably, the latter is 'disconnected with knowledge.' And it would likewise have been omitted in connexion with Thoughts III., IV. and VII., but not in connexion with the others.

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